The main therapeutic agent for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Plasma levels and the acid inhibitory effect of PPIs depend on the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19, which is polymorphic. Genotypes of CYP2C19 are classified into three groups: rapid metabolizers (RMs: *1/*1), intermediate metabolizers (IMs: *1/*X), and poor metabolizers (PMs: *X/*X), where *1 and X represent the wild type and the mutant allele, respectively. RMs include ultra-rapid metabolizers, who possess the CYP2C19*17 allele. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of PPIs differ among different CYP2C19 genotype groups. Plasma PPI levels and intragastric pH values during PPI treatment are lowest in the RM group, intermediate in the IM group, and highest in the PM group. These CYP2C19-genotype-dependent differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of PPIs influence the healing and recurrence of GERD during PPI treatment, suggesting the need for CYP2C19 genotype-based tailored therapy for GERD. CYP2C19 pharmacogenetics should be taken into consideration for the personalization of PPI-based therapy. However, the clinical usefulness of CYP2C19 genotype testing in GERD therapy should be verified in clinical studies.