Individual differences in working memory and reading

@article{Daneman1980IndividualDI,
  title={Individual differences in working memory and reading},
  author={Meredyth Daneman and Patricia A. Carpenter},
  journal={Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior},
  year={1980},
  volume={19},
  pages={450-466}
}
Individual differences in reading comprehension may reflect differences in working memory capacity, specifically in the trade-off between its processing and storage functions. A poor reader's processes may be inefficient, so that they lessen the amount of additional information that can be maintained in working memory. A test with heavy processing and storage demands was devised to measure this trade-off. Subjects read aloud a series of sentences and then recalled the final word of each… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

The measurement of reading comprehension: How not to trade construct validity for predictive power☆
Abstract This paper proposes a way to measure and understand individual differences in reading comprehension. The measure is based on the theory that individual differences in reading skill reflect
Individual differences in working memory and comprehension: a test of four hypotheses.
TLDR
The results of all 3 experiments support a general capacity explanation for the relationship between working memory and comprehension.
Working Memory and Reading: A Life-span Perspective
The relationships among working memory, memory span, and reading skills were studied in 1266 individuals, aged 6-49. They were administered tests of word recognition, pseudoword decoding, reading
Individual Differences in Working Memory for Comprehension and Following Directions
AbstractThe extent to which individual differences in working memory capacity were related to differences in comprehension and following direction was studied in first, third, and sixth graders.
Individual differences in syntactic processing: The role of working memory
The results of two experiments indicate that individual differences in syntactic processing are governed in part by the amount of working memory capacity available for language comprehension
The Relations Between Children’s Reading Comprehension, Working Memory, Language Skills and Components of Reading Decoding in a Normal Sample
The primary aim of the current study was to identify the strongest independent predictors of reading comprehension using word reading, language and memory variables in a normal sample of 180 children
Processing resources and age differences in working memory
TLDR
Investigating the performance of young and old subjects on a modified version of the working memory task developed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974) suggests that older people have greater difficulty with the active processing aspects, rather than with the passive holding aspects, of working memory tasks.
Individual differences in children's writing: A function of working memory or reading or both processes?
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a general or specific working memory (WM) system is related to writing and whether individual differences in reading and/or processing efficiency
Working-memory capacity and reading comprehension in young and older adults
TLDR
The intercorrelations suggested that the age-related impairment was probably linked to the processing component of working-memory capacity, and that the reading-comprehension test did not differ between groups.
The differential relations between verbal, numerical and spatial working memory abilities and children's reading comprehension
Working memory predicts children's reading comprehension but it is not clear whether this relation is due to a modality-specific or general working memory. This study, which investigated the
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 33 REFERENCES
Discourse Memory and Reading Comprehension Skill.
Abstract Two short-term memory functions can be distinguished by their roles in language comprehension. One is short-term memory capacity and was estimated in the present study by a probe digit task.
Processing determinants of reading speed.
TLDR
The results supported the conclusion that one skill allowing fast readers to capture more information from each reading fixation is faster access to letter codes from print, and this represented two important independent correlates of reading ability in a sample of subjects.
Interactive processes in reading comprehension
Comprehension during reading involves higher‐order processing of discourse structure and the reader's knowledge in interaction with lower‐level word coding processes. The interactions between these
Short-Term Memory Function in Young Readers.
Abstract Twelve good readers and 12 poor readers, 10-y4-olds, were given memory span tests, and memory scanning tests, in both auditory and visual modalities. Their concept of a letter pattern was
Individual differences in immediate serial recall: A matter of mnemonics?
  • D. Lyon
  • Psychology
    Cognitive Psychology
  • 1977
Abstract Normal adults differ in a fairly general immediate serial recall ability which is commonly assessed on individual IQ tests. Two experiments tested the role of rehearsal, grouping, and
Short-term memory limitations in children: Capacity or processing deficits?
  • M. Chi
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Memory & cognition
  • 1976
TLDR
No evidence was found that can suggest conclusively that either the capacity or the rate of information loss from STM varies with age, and substantial evidence exists to show that the processing strategies used by adults are unavailable or deficient in children.
The role of short-term working memory in mental arithmetic
  • G. Hitch
  • Mathematics
    Cognitive Psychology
  • 1978
Abstract A series of experiments explored the role of information storage in working memory in performing mental arithmetic. Experiment 1 assessed the strategies people report for solving auditorily
A theory of reading: from eye fixations to comprehension.
TLDR
A model of reading comprehension that accounts for the allocation of eye fixations of college students reading scientific passages is presented, embedded in a theoretical framework capable of accommodating the flexibility of reading.
Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading
Abstract A model of information processing in reading is described in which visual information is transformed through a series of processing stages involving visual, phonological and episodic memory
Why does memory span increase with age?
Abstract Ordered recall of auditory digits was obtained from children of 4, 7, 9, and 11 years of age. Lists had one of three types of sound pattern: melody, prosody, or monotone. For each sound
...
1
2
3
4
...