Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate?

@article{Stanovich2000IndividualDI,
  title={Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate?},
  author={Keith E. Stanovich and Richard F. West},
  journal={Behavioral and Brain Sciences},
  year={2000},
  volume={23},
  pages={645 - 665}
}
Much research in the last two decades has demonstrated that human responses deviate from the performance deemed normative according to various models of decision making and rational judgment (e.g., the basic axioms of utility theory). This gap between the normative and the descriptive can be interpreted as indicating systematic irrationalities in human cognition. However, four alternative interpretations preserve the assumption that human behavior and cognition is largely rational. These posit… 

Evolutionary versus instrumental goals: How evolutionary psychology misconceives human rationality

An important research tradition in the cognitive psychology of reasoning-called the heuristics and biases approach-has firmly established that people's responses often deviate from the performance

The Dual Process Account of Reasoning: Historical Roots, Problems and Perspectives

Despite the great effort that has been dedicated to the attempt to redefine expected utility theory on the grounds of new assumptions, modifying or moderating some axioms, none of the alternative

On the distinction between rationality and intelligence: Implications for understanding individual differences in reasoning.

This chapter concludes by showing how this tripartite model of mind, taken in the context of studies of individual differences, can help to resolve the Great Rationality Debate.

In Search of Counter-Examples: Deductive Rationality in Human Reasoning

The results of contextual manipulations that have a bearing on the supposed primacy of System 1 are presented, concur with the thesis in dual-processing frameworks that “Rationality-2 processes” (Evans & Over, 1996), “test procedures’ (Chater & Oaksford, 1999), or “conclusion validation processes“ (Johnson-Laird & Byrne, 1991) serve to override the results of System 2 processes.

Individual Differences in Deductive Reasoning

Three studies are reported, which examined individual differences in deductive reasoning as a function of intellectual ability and thinking style. Intellectual ability was a good predictor of logical

Judgment and decision making in adolescence: Separating intelligence from rationality.

Rational thinking involves adopting appro{niate goals, taking the appro{niate action given one's goals and beliefs, and holding beliefs rltat are commensurate with available evidence . Traditional

Communicating numeric quantities in context: implications for decision science and rationality claims

The degree to which decision researchers seem confident in defining the meaning of linguistic terms for others runs counter to a fundamental idea in the philosophy of language, which holds that the meanings of words are definable only through their actual use in language.

Changing minds: Bounded rationality and heuristic processes in exercise-related judgments and choices.

Theories currently used to understand, predict, and promote physical activity and exercise represent information-processing models of the mind. A fundamental assumption underpinning these theories is

The intersection between Descriptivism and Meliorism in reasoning research: further proposals in support of ‘soft normativism’

It is believed that descriptions of reasoning processes are fundamentally enriched by evaluations of reasoning quality, and it is argued that if such standards are discarded altogether then the authors' explanations and descriptions of thinking processes are severely undermined.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 1,807 REFERENCES

Individual differences in rational thought.

Much research in the last 2 decades has demonstrated that humans deviate from normative models of decision making and rational judgment. In 4 studies involving 954 participants, the authors explored

Rationality in reasoning : The problem of deductive competence. Commentaries. Authors' reply

It is argued that people are largely rational in the sense of achieving their personal goals (rationality 1 ) but have only a limited ability to reason or act for good reasons sanctioned by a

Without good reason : the rationality debate in philosophy and cognitive science

Are humans rational? Various experiments performed over the last several decades have been interpreted as showing that humans are irrational-we make significant and consistent errors in logical

Discrepancies Between Normative and Descriptive Models of Decision Making and the Understanding/Acceptance Principle

Several tasks from the heuristics and biases literature were examined in light of Slovic and Tversky's (1974) understanding/acceptance principle-that the deeper the understanding of a normative

The Two Camps on Rationality

Inductive reasoning: Competence or skill?

alleged fallacy is in interpreting experiments according to what is advocated by Western moral experts. However, we believe that this argument in fact also provides good grounds for the case of

Can human irrationality be experimentally demonstrated?

  • L. Cohen
  • Psychology
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • 1981
Abstract The object of this paper is to show why recent research in the psychology of deductive and probabilistic reasoning does not have "bleak implications for human rationality," as has sometimes

The belief-bias effect in formal reasoning: The influence of knowledge on logic

The present study examines the applicability of a rational model of categorical inference (e.g., Revlis, 1975b) to account for the apparently irrational decisions students reach on categorical

Human Reasoning: Deduction Rules or Mental Models, or Both?

A good deal of energy is currently being expended into discovering the fundamental machinery underlying deductive reasoning. Is it based upon mental models (arrays) or deduction rules (propositions)?

Cognitive accommodation, language, and social responsibility.

The two studies reported here examine cognitive accommodation in a betting situation where a decision-maker perceives that the person for whom he is making judgments has a legitimate right to have an
...