Individual Genomes Instead of Race for Personalized Medicine

@article{Ng2008IndividualGI,
  title={Individual Genomes Instead of Race for Personalized Medicine},
  author={PC Ng and Q Zhao and Samuel Levy and RL Strausberg and JC Venter},
  journal={Clinical Pharmacology \& Therapeutics},
  year={2008},
  volume={84}
}
  • PC Ng, Q. Zhao, JC Venter
  • Published 1 September 2008
  • Biology
  • Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
The cost of sequencing and genotyping is aggressively decreasing, enabling pervasive personalized genomic screening for drug reactions. [] Key Method We examine six drug-metabolizing genes in J. Craig Venter and James Watson, two Caucasian men whose genomes were recently sequenced. Their genetic differences underscore the importance of personalized genomics over a race-based approach to medicine. To attain truly personalized medicine, the scientific community must aim to elucidate the genetic and…
Why personalized medicine will fail if we stay the course.
TLDR
The importance of increasing ethnic and racial diversity among participants in genomic research is demonstrated, areas of opportunity for improving the understanding of genomic diversity among populations are highlighted, and examples of successful models that help to resolve these concerns are provided.
Whole-genome resequencing in pharmacogenomics: moving away from past disparities to globally representative applications.
TLDR
Using pharmacogenes to critically examine the merit of next-generation sequencing technologies in pharmacogenomics, a substantial amount of novel/uncharacterized variation was found, which was predicted to alter protein function, and an improvement in the reliability of sequencing technologies was observed.
Genetic factors affecting drug disposition in Asian cancer patients
TLDR
This work finds that complex genetic interactions and regulation, including a multiplicity of gene control mechanisms, are increasingly implicated in genotype–phenotype correlates than has hitherto been appreciated – potentially serving as the mechanistic links between hits in non-coding regions of genome-wide association studies and drug toxicity.
Race, Genes and Health: Public Conceptions about the Effectiveness of Race-Based Medicine and Personalized Genomic Medicine
TLDR
The purpose of this dissertation study was to use, for the first time, a nationally representative sample of adult Americans to examine the importance of race and the extent to which these beliefs and attitudes can be influenced by mass media messages about the relationship between rac and genetics.
Personalized Pharmacotherapy: Genotypes, Biomarkers, and Beyond
TLDR
A pragmatic solution should include the creation of incentives for both academia and the pharma industry to invest in validation studies on the effects of known genetic and nongenetic biomarkers on the safety and efficacy of current drugs.
The fallacy of racial pharmacogenomics.
  • S. D. Pena
  • Biology, Medicine
    Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas
  • 2011
TLDR
The conclusion is that "next-generation" genomic sequencing is advancing at a tremendous rate and that true personalized pharmacogenomics, based on individual genotyping, should soon become a clinical reality.
Population structure and pharmacogenomic risk stratification in the United States
TLDR
Analysis of highly differentiated PGx variants illustrates how SIRE partitions PGx variation based on groups’ characteristic ancestry patterns, and underscores the extent to which SIRE carries clinically valuable information for stratifying PGx risk among populations, albeit with less utility for predicting individual-level PGx alleles (genotypes).
[Pharmacogenomics: hype or hope?].
TLDR
The implementation of pharmacogenomics into clinical practise is a momentous future challenge that requires the establishment of interdisciplinary networks and professional organizations.
Race, Risk and Medicine in the Age of ‘Your Own Personal Genome’
TLDR
The new ways of thinking about individuals and populations, about risk and responsibility, and about race and population differentiation that are taking shape are characterized and explored, and their personal and social implications are explored.
Cancer Pharmacoethnicity: Ethnic Differences in Susceptibility to the Effects of Chemotherapy
TLDR
The current clinical evidence for ethnic differences in anticancer drug disposition and sensitivity is reviewed while highlighting the challenges, and potential solutions, to acquiring such knowledge.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 20 REFERENCES
Pharmacogenomics: translating functional genomics into rational therapeutics.
TLDR
Pharmacogenomic studies are rapidly elucidating the inherited nature of these differences in drug disposition and effects, thereby enhancing drug discovery and providing a stronger scientific basis for optimizing drug therapy on the basis of each patient's genetic constitution.
The complete genome of an individual by massively parallel DNA sequencing
TLDR
This sequence was completed in two months at approximately one-hundredth of the cost of traditional capillary electrophoresis methods and demonstrated the acquisition of novel human sequence, including novel genes not previously identified by traditional genomic sequencing, which is the first genome sequenced by next-generation technologies.
Table of Valid Genomic Biomarkers in the Context of Approved Drug Labels
  • Biology
  • 2009
TLDR
The table shown below provides a reference for genomic biomarkers in labels of FDA-approved drug products, and can play an important role in identifying responders and non-responders, avoiding toxicity and adjusting the dosage of drugs to optimize their efficacy and safety.
The pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics knowledge base: accentuating the knowledge
TLDR
In order to meet the needs of whole genome studies, PharmGKB has added new functionalities, including browsing the variant display by chromosome and cytogenetic locations, allowing the user to view variants not located within a gene.
Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6): clinical consequences, evolutionary aspects and functional diversity
TLDR
Predictive CYP2D6 genotyping is estimated by the author to be beneficial for treatment of about 30–40% of CYP 2D6 drug substrates, that is, for about 7–10% of all drugs clinically used, although prospective clinical studies are necessary to evaluate the exact benefit of drug selection and dosage.
The Diploid Genome Sequence of an Individual Human
TLDR
A modified version of the Celera assembler is developed to facilitate the identification and comparison of alternate alleles within this individual diploid genome, and a novel haplotype assembly strategy is used, able to span 1.5 Gb of genome sequence in segments >200 kb, providing further precision to the diploids nature of the genome.
Participation of racial/ethnic groups in clinical trials and race-related labeling: a review of new molecular entities approved 1995-1999.
TLDR
A retrospective review of FDA medical officers' reviews of clinical trial protocols and product labeling for 185 new molecular entities approved by CDER between January 1,1995, and December 31, 1999 found that African Americans participated in trials to the greatest extent; however, their participation steadily declined from 12% in 1995 to 6% in 1999.
Bidil: recontextualizing the race debate
TLDR
To understand the BiDil case and by extension, potential opportunities and harms of marketing drugs targeted at specific populations, 18 key informants are interviewed including scientists, clinicians involved in the A-HeFT clinical trial, and representatives of groups that supported or cosponsored the trial, including the Association of Black Cardiologists.
Breakthrough of the year. It's all about me.
Along with the flood of discoveries in human genetics, 2007 saw the birth of a new industry: personal genomics. But researchers worry that these services open up a Pandora's box of ethical issues.
Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.
TLDR
The incidence of serious and fatal adverse drug reactions in US hospitals was found to be extremely high, and data suggest that ADRs represent an important clinical issue.
...
...