Individual Change in Perceived Control over 20 Years

  title={Individual Change in Perceived Control over 20 Years},
  author={Margaret Gatz and Michele J. Karel},
  journal={International Journal of Behavioral Development},
  pages={305 - 322}
  • M. Gatz, M. Karel
  • Published 1 June 1993
  • Psychology
  • International Journal of Behavioral Development
Perceptions of personal control were studied in 1267 individuals who represented four generations of families participating in a large longitudinal study spanning 1971 to 1991. Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential analytic strategies were employed. Over 20 years, mean levels of personal control became more internal in the 560 respondents who participated at all four times of measurement, probably as a reflection of contextual factors in the culture. Developmental changes toward greater… 
Age Differences in Perceptions of Control in Social Relationships
Multilevel modeling revealed that both relationship features and individual characteristics were associated with perceptions of control in relationships, and individuals felt more control in their marital relationships and in relationships characterized by higher quality and fewer worries.
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Sociodemographic, physical health, cognitive, and social factors explained some of the differences in control beliefs, and accounted for sizable portions of cohort effects.
Everything Under Control? The Effects of Age, Gender, and Education on Trajectories of Perceived Control in a Nationally Representative German Sample
Cross-sectional age differences and longitudinal mean-level changes as well as rank-order changes in perceived control with respect to gender and education were identified and changes in income and health were analyzed to explain trajectories of perceived control.
Growth in perceived control across 25 years from the late teens to midlife: the role of personal and parents' education.
Perceived control increased from age 18 to age 25 and decreased by age 32, with a further slower decrease by age 43, but parallel process modeling found that perceived control at age 19 predicted gains through age 32 in years of postsecondary education.
Perceived Control Across the Second Half of Life: The Role of Physical Health and Social Integration
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Moderated multiple regressions indicated that the degree to which self-percepts of control within a particular goal domain affect an individual's general sense of control depends on the personal importance of that domain.
Perceived Constraints in Late Midlife: Cohort Differences in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA)
It is concluded that secular trends such as perceptions of constraints in people’s lives generalize to key psychosocial resources across adulthood and old age.
Level and change in perceived control predict 19-year mortality: findings from the Americans' changing lives study.
Examining the extent to which mean levels and rates of change in perceived control over 16 years predict all-cause mortality over a 19-year follow-up period found that level effects of control were accounted for by well-being and health factors, whereas the change effects ofControl were not.
SOEPpapers 445: Everything Under Control?
Perceived control is an important variable for various demands involved in successful aging. However, perceived control is not set in stone, but rather changes throughout the life course. The aim of


Relationship between Locus of Control and Chronological Age
Findings question stereotypes of elderly as powerless and dependent on others to subsist in a threatening and unreliable environment and suggest elderly Ss believed they were personally competent, and not at the mercy of powerful others or a capricious environment.
Relationship of family background variables to locus of control in the elderly.
The present study sought to determine how family variables are related to locus of control, under the hypothesis that a larger and more cohesive family would provide greater reinforcement for the
Age Differences in Life Satisfaction, Locus of Control, and Self-Concept
Based upon findings and the relationships among the dependent variables, the older veterans appear to have resolved the ego integrity versus despair crisis more adequately in spite of having lived for a longer period of time in what has often been viewed as a sterile, blunting environment.
Activism and Powerful Others: Distinctions within the Concept of Internal-External Control
Summary Some studies report that activists are Internals, while others claim they are Externals, holding a belief in chance, fate, and powerful others. Three new scales were constructed in order to
No shift in locus of control among women during the 1970s
Contrary to reports published previously in this journal (Doherty, 1983; Doherty & Baldwin, 1985), there is no evidence of a shift in locus of control among U.S. women during the 1970s-at least not
Sex Differences in Career Development: Locus of Control and Career Commitment Effects
In this research attitudes and behavioral dispositions of men and women in two age groups that may correspond to different career stages were compared. Locus of control and career commitment were
Locus of control in aging research: a case for multidimensional and domain-specific assessment.
Age differences were found most often on the chance and powerful others control dimensions, suggesting that the elderly acknowledge the importance of external sources of control and at the same time preserve their sense of internal control.
Adult Development, Control, and Adaptive Functioning
This article examines variations in control over the adult life course and their relation to adaptive functioning. First, normative adult physical declines and the age-graded structure of western
Meaning and purpose in life and well-being: a life-span perspective.
Three hundred men and women at five developmental stages from young adulthood to the old-old completed measures of life attitudes and well-being to attest to the importance of various life attitudes in promoting health and wellness.
Internal versus External Locus of Control for Three Age Groups
  • S. Staats
  • Psychology
    International journal of aging & human development
  • 1974
A trend for males to be more internal in their beliefs was suggested, with internal locus of control expectations increased with age.