Indirect evidence of selective glial involvement in glutamate-based mechanisms of mood regulation in depression: meta-analysis of absolute prefrontal neuro-metabolic concentrations.

Abstract

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) measures glutamatergic metabolites namely glutamate and glutamine located in neurons and astrocytes respectively. In this meta-analysis the contribution of glutamatergic neurotransmission to depressive symptoms was evaluated together with other putative prefrontal metabolites described in the pathogenesis of mood disorders, and in relation to treatment effects. A comprehensive literature search up to 2014 identified 17 reports which measured absolute concentrations of neurometabolites in the prefrontal cortex with (1)H MRS meeting criteria for inclusion in this meta-analysis. Excess of heterogeneity was investigated with meta-regressions. The analyses showed an exclusive reduction in absolute values of the composite measure of Glutamine and Glutamate (Glx) in the prefrontal cortex in depression, correlating in meta-regression analyses with treatment severity. Glutamate measurements in isolation did not differ vs. healthy controls or in relation to treatment and/or clinical improvement. Similarly there were no significant changes in other neurometabolites at baseline and following treatment. The analysis supports a role for glutamatergic dysfunction in the pathogeneses of mood dysregulation. The reduction in the absolute Glx values in the absence of changes in glutamate levels, suggests a possible modulatory role of astrocytes in the pathophysiology of depression.

DOI: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.04.016
0204060201520162017
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@article{Arnone2015IndirectEO, title={Indirect evidence of selective glial involvement in glutamate-based mechanisms of mood regulation in depression: meta-analysis of absolute prefrontal neuro-metabolic concentrations.}, author={D. Arnone and Abdul Nashirudeen Mumuni and Sameer Jauhar and Barrie Condon and Jonathan Cavanagh}, journal={European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology}, year={2015}, volume={25 8}, pages={1109-17} }