Indices of El Niño Evolution

  title={Indices of El Ni{\~n}o Evolution},
  author={Kevin E. Trenberth and DAVID P. STEPANIAK},
To characterize the nature of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in different regions of the Pacific have been used. An optimal characterization of both the distinct character and the evolution of each El Niño or La Niña event is suggested that requires at least two indices: (i) SST anomalies in the Niño-3.4 region (referred to as N3.4), and (ii) a new index termed here the Trans-Niño Index (TNI), which is given by the difference in normalized anomalies… CONTINUE READING
Highly Influential
This paper has highly influenced 14 other papers. REVIEW HIGHLY INFLUENTIAL CITATIONS
Highly Cited
This paper has 116 citations. REVIEW CITATIONS

From This Paper

Figures, tables, and topics from this paper.


Publications citing this paper.
Showing 1-10 of 68 extracted citations

Recent Changes in Central and Eastern Pacific El Niño

Peter M. Washam
View 4 Excerpts
Highly Influenced

Tree-ring footprint of joint hydrologic drought in Sacramento and Upper Colorado river basins , western USA

David M. Mekoa, Connie A. Woodhouseb
View 3 Excerpts
Highly Influenced

Impact of El Niño Variability on Oceanic Phytoplankton

Front. Mar. Sci. • 2017
View 4 Excerpts
Highly Influenced

117 Citations

Citations per Year
Semantic Scholar estimates that this publication has 117 citations based on the available data.

See our FAQ for additional information.


Publications referenced by this paper.
Showing 1-10 of 15 references

Recent observed interdecadal climate changes

K. E. Trenberth
View 6 Excerpts
Highly Influenced

Recent observed interdecadal climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere

K. E. Trenberth
Bull . Amer . Meteor . Soc . • 1990
View 6 Excerpts
Highly Influenced

Variations in tropical sea surface temperature and surface wind fields associated with the Southern Oscillation / El Niño

E. M. Rasmusson, T. H. Carpenter
Mon . Wea . Rev . • 1982
View 3 Excerpts
Highly Influenced

ENSIP: The El Niño Simulation

M. Latif
Coauthors, • 2001

Modification of tropical Pacific variability by its mean state inferred from a 155 - year coral record

B. Wang
Nature • 2000

Global sea surface temperature analyses: Multiple problems and their implications for climate analysis, modeling, and reanalysis

J. W. Hurrell, K. E. Trenberth
Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., • 1999
View 1 Excerpt

Is climate variability over the North Pacific a linear response to ENSO ?

D. S. Battisti
J . Climate • 1996

Similar Papers

Loading similar papers…