BACKGROUND Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy is one of the most commonly performed endoscopic procedures. Properly performed, it provides valuable information in patients with upper gastrointestinal conditions. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy is a visual examination of the upper intestinal tract using a lighted, flexible fibreoptic endoscope or videoscope. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy is generally indicated for evaluating upper abdominal symptoms such as dysphagia or odynophagia, oesophageal reflux symptoms, gastroduodenal or oesophageal ulcer, upper tract stricture or obstruction, gastrointestinal bleeding, persistent vomiting of unknown cause etc. This study is therefore to review the indications for oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in Ilorin, Nigeria. AIM To review the indications for oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in Ilorin, Nigeria. METHODOLOGY A review of the indications for oesophagogastroduodenoscopy was undertaken to cover a thirty-month period from June 2006 to November 2008. The endoscopy register of the operating theatre was examined over this period. The biodata of the patients who underwent the procedure over this period was reviewed. RESULTS A total of 206 patients had oesophagogastroduodenoscopy done on them during the period under review. 124 of the patients were males (60.2%) while 82 were females (39.8%). The indications for oesophagogastroduodenoscopy were dyspepsia, 94 patients (45.6%); upper gastrointestinal tract bleed, 54 patients (26.2%); gastric outlet obstruction, 12 patients (5.8%); gastric cancer, 11 patients (5.3%); dysphagia, 9 patients (4.3%); acute exacerbation of peptic ulcer disease, 8 patients (3.8%); gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, 7 patients (3.4%); recurrent vomiting, 3 patients (1.5%); bloody stool, 2 patients (1.0%); epigastric mass, 2 patients (1.0%); 1 patient (0.5%) each on account of excessive salivation, foreign body ingestion, ingestion of corrosive, and recurrent anaemia. CONCLUSION The commonest indication for oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in Ilorin is dyspepsia.