Independent suboesophageal neuronal innervation of the defense gland and longitudinal muscles in the stick insect (Peruphasma schultei) prothorax.

  title={Independent suboesophageal neuronal innervation of the defense gland and longitudinal muscles in the stick insect (Peruphasma schultei) prothorax.},
  author={Konrad Stolz and Johannes Strau{\ss} and Joscha Arne Alt and Reinhard Lakes-Harlan},
  journal={Arthropod structure \& development},
  volume={47 2},


Multiple Identified Neurons and Peripheral Nerves Innervating the Prothoracic Defense Glands in Stick Insects Reveal Evolutionary Conserved and Novel Elements of a Chemical Defense System
The innervating nerves for dorsal longitudinal muscles are conserved in stick insects, while the neuronal control system was specialized with conserved mot oneurons for the persisting neck muscles, and evolutionarily novel suboesophageal and prothoracic motoneurons innervated the defense gland.
Neurons of self-defence: neuronal innervation of the exocrine defence glands in stick insects
Axonal tracing shows a very complex innervation pattern of the defence glands of Phasmatodea which contains different neurons in different nerves from two adjacent body segments, and some evolutionary changes are notable in a conserved neuronal network.
Functional morphology and neuronal innervation of the prothoracic defence gland in Timema
The hypothesis that in euphasmids, the muscular part of the gland evolved from the dorsal longitudinal neck muscles in all Polyneoptera also innervate the defence glands in phasmids is supported.
A comparative study of neck muscle motor neurons in a cricket and a locust
It is suggested that neck muscle function be described in terms of “behavioural units of action”, as several muscles share the same motor neurons.
Motor supply of the dorsal longitudinal muscles II: Comparison of motoneurone sets in Tracheata
The results support the idea that the structure of MNs in the largest present taxon of Insecta, the Dicondylia, is conserved irrespective of crucial changes in the periphery (e.g. primarily apterygote vs oteryGote).
A Guide to the Neuroanatomy of Locust Suboesophageal and Thoracic Ganglia
The organization of the thoracic and suboesophageal ganglia in the locust is presented to provide a framework into which details of individual neurons can be inserted as information becomes
Sensory neuroanatomy of stick insects highlights the evolutionary diversity of the orthopteroid subgenual organ complex
The comparison of sensory structures indicates that elaborate scolopidial organs have evolved repeatedly among orthopteroids, and the distal organ in stick insects has the highest number of sensory neurons known for distal organs so far.
Serial homologies of the motor neurons of the dorsal intersegmental muscles of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.)
The types and locations of serially homologous motor neurons of the dorsal muscles in the cockroach Periplaneta americana remain rather constant regardless of the various adaptations of their muscles