Indenolol: A New Antihypertensive Agent: Efficacy, Toxicity, and Hemodynamic Effects in a Crossover Double‐Blind Study With Metoprolol

  title={Indenolol: A New Antihypertensive Agent: Efficacy, Toxicity, and Hemodynamic Effects in a Crossover Double‐Blind Study With Metoprolol},
  author={Bruno Trimarco and Alberto Cuocolo and Gisela Groothold and Bruno Ricciardelli and Nicola De Luca and Massimo Volpe and A. M. Veniero and Mario Condorelli},
  journal={The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology},
The antihypertensive efficacy of a new agent, indenolol, was compared with that of the well‐established antihypertensive drug, metoprolol, and its hemodynamic effects were investigated using echocardiography. Eighteen hypertensives completed a double‐blind, crossover, randomized study using indenolol and metoprolol. Two four‐week courses with indenolol or metoprolol were preceded and followed by a two‐week placebo period; the total duration of the study was 14 weeks. Indenolol proved to be… 
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Renal and Limb Vasodilatation during Acute Beta‐Adrenoceptor Blockade with Indenolol
Indenolol is a noncardioselective beta‐adrenoceptor blocking drug with partial agonist activity. The mechanism of its acute antihypertensive activity has been evaluated in a double‐blind, inpatient,
Indenolol, a β‐blocker with partial agonism at vascular β‐adrenoceptors
Indenolol vasodilated forearm arterioles and this effect was antagonized by β‐blockade, thus demonstrating vascular intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, which may contribute to its therapeutic action in human beings.
Meta-Analysis of the Hemodynamic Properties of Antihypertensive Medications
A meta-analysis of studies involving the treatment of hypertension using the effect of ACEIs, β-blockers, CCBs and thiazide diuretics on plasma volume, cardiac output or stroke volume found that the various classes of antihypertensive medications differ from each other in terms of their non-blood pressure lowering hemodynamic properties.
Acute effect of indenolol on human airways
The mechanism of action of indenolol is discussed in the light of the lack of its acute effect on airways resistance, and the non-cardioselective agent (propranolol) was more effective than the cardioseLECTive compound (atenolol) in decreasing the expiratory flow.
Effects of indenolol on blood pressure, lower limb blood flow, adrenergic reflexes, and plasma renin activity
Indenolol possesses an antihypertensive activity associated with reduction of vascular resistance and lower limb vascular resistance was significantly lowered, thus suggesting an intrinsic sympathomimetic activity.


Dose‐response studies of indenolol, a beta adrenoceptor blocker
Dose‐response curves for both drugs revealed that maximum attenuation of exercise tachycardia and systolic blood pressure were in the same range but suggested that indenolol induced a greater response in the lower doses.
Indenolol in hypertension
The effect of indenolol on systolic arterial pressure was dose and time related, but independent of the intensity of hypertension, and no dose‐effect relationship was found on diastolic arterials pressure.
Reduction in sympathetic nervous activity as a mechanism for hypotensive effect of propranolol
Direct evidence is presented that propranolol diminishes sympathetic nerve activity in the rabbit and that this central effect contributes to the hypotensive action of the drug.
Propranolol inhibition of renin secretion. A specific approach to diagnosis and treatment of renin-dependent hypertensive diseases.
The drug was uniformly effective in 13 patients with high renin activity and malignant, renovascular, or essential hypertension, producing a mean fall in diastolic pressure of 30 mm of mercury, but individual responses were less consistent.
Hyperdynamic beta-adrenergic circulatory state.
Increased β-activity can, therefore, produce hypertension if blood pressure is ascribed to an increase in flow or its determining variables, heart rate and stroke volume, normalization of these factors may provide a specific therapeutic measure in its reduction.
Renal function in borderline hypertensive first-degree relatives of essential hypertensives. Effects of sodium load.
The results suggest that borderline hypertensives already present the changes in renal function which are characteristics of established hypertensive.