Incubation and the Resolution of Tip-of-the-Tongue States

  title={Incubation and the Resolution of Tip-of-the-Tongue States},
  author={Hyun Choi and Steven M. Smith},
  journal={The Journal of General Psychology},
  pages={365 - 376}
Are tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states better resolved by persistent retrieval efforts, or does an incubation period, i.e., a time away from memory attempts, facilitate resolution? General knowledge questions were given to participants twice, with the retest given either immediately after the participant's first attempt to answer the question, or after a period of incubation during which the participant answered other unrelated questions. When questions were unanswered, they were rated for TOT… Expand
The effect of incubation on the resolution of tip-of-the-tongue states and the relation between resolution, incidence and cognitive ability
This study replicated Choi and Smith (2005) by examining the effect of incubation on the resolution of tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states. Is it better to be persistent in one‟s retrieval efforts of anExpand
Effect of incubation on the resolution of Tip-of-the-Tongue states and the relation with attention and concentration
This study replicates Choi and Smith (2005) and Masselink (2012) and takes a closer look at the effect of incubation and tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) strength on the resolution of these “TOTs”. In otherExpand
“Blockers” do not block recall during tip-of-the-tongue states
Tip-of-the-Tongue experiences (TOTs) are often accompanied by incorrect answers (blockers) that come to mind persistently and seem to block recall. According to the blocking hypothesis, blockersExpand
Tip-of-the-tongue states as metacognition
The tip-of-the-tongue state (henceforth, TOT) is typically defined as the feeling that a known word will be recalled even though it is not accessible immediately. Others have defined TOTs as simplyExpand
The influence of external stimulation in missing knowledge retrieval
The findings suggest that sensory restriction (especially of visual stimuli) facilitates the retrieval of weakly accessible knowledge through a greater processing of inner stimuli. Expand
Overcoming Fixation: The Role for Incubation and Inhibition
Storm and Angello (2010) demonstrated that the inhibitory mechanism underlying retrieval-induced forgetting benefited performance on the Remote Associates Task (RAT; Mednick, 1962) under fixatedExpand
Curiosity, Demand Characteristics, and the Tip-of-the-Tongue State
The tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) state is generally described as the feeling that one knows a target word and recall of this word is imminent, although the word is currently unrecallable. ResearchExpand
Dissociation between the cognitive process and the phenomenological experience of TOT: Effect of the anxiolytic drug lorazepam on TOT states
The effects of lorazepam on TOT states in response to general knowledge questions are investigated in terms of contemporary theories of TOTs and the effects that benzodiazepines have on semantic memory. Expand
Age-Related Increases in Tip-of-the-tongue are Distinct from Decreases in Remembering Names: A Functional MRI Study
Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) experiences increase with age and frequently heighten concerns about memory decline. We studied 73 clinically normal older adults participating in the Harvard Aging BrainExpand
Escaping mental fixation: Incubation and inhibition in creative problem solving
This work tested the hypothesis that incubation reduces the need for inhibition by reducing the extent to which problem solvers suffer fixation by inserting an incubation period between two 30-second problem-solving attempts. Expand


The relation of tip-of-the-tongue states and retrieval time
The tip-of-the-tongue state (TOT) is the phenomenological experience that a word is on the verge of being recalled, andValence of emotion was correlated with correct resolution of the TOT. Expand
The phenomenology of real and illusory tip-of-the-tongue states
The tip-of-the-tongue state (TOT) is the phenomenological experience that a word is on the verge of being recalled, and imminence was defined as the feeling that retrieval is about to occur, which was more likely to be followed by resolution and recognition than were nonimminent TOTs. Expand
The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: Blocking or partial activation?
In three experiments designed to address alternative views of tip-of-the-tongue states, subjects attempted to retrieve rare target words from their definitions, finding that related cue words that were presented immediately after target definitions helped rather than hindered lexical retrieval, and sound cues were more effective retrieval aids than meaning cues. Expand
A review of the tip-of-the-tongue experience.
  • A. S. Brown
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Psychological bulletin
  • 1991
A more precise definition of the TOT experience is needed, as well as greater uniformity in the information gathered during TOTs. Expand
Illusory tip-of-the-tongue states.
The tip-of-the-tongue state (TOT) is the phenomenological experience that a target word is on the verge of being recalled, but the actual target is either unavailable, forgotten, or never learned. Expand
On the tip of the tongue: What causes word finding failures in young and older adults?
Abstract This paper develops a new theory of the tip of the tongue (TOT) phenomenon. Within this interactive activation model of speech production, TOTs occur when the connections between lexical andExpand
On the Tip of the Tongue An Event-Related fMRI Study of Semantic Retrieval Failure and Cognitive Conflict
Results revealed that, relative to successful retrieval or unsuccessful retrieval not accompanied by a TOT, retrieval failures accompanied by TOTs elicited a selective response in anterior cingulate-prefrontal cortices. Expand
Back to Woodworth: Role of interlopers in the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
It appears that interlopers tend to induce tip-of-the-tongue states by obstructing retrieval, rather than to nullify them by facilitating retrieval. Expand
Phonological blocking in the tip of the tongue state
The study of naturally occurring cases of tip of the tongue cases suggests that the recall of a word on the basis of its meaning may proceed via an intermediate stage characterised by partial retrieval of its phonology. Expand
Incubation and the persistence of fixation in problem solving.
It is hypothesized that fixation, a block to successful problem solving, may develop during initial solution attempts and persist, interfering with immediate extra work more than with delayed extra work in problem solving. Expand