BACKGROUND The incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is correlated with decreased levels of testosterone in elderly men. Late sodium current may exert a role in AF pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of testosterone deficiency on AF susceptibility and the therapeutic effect of late sodium current inhibitors in mice. METHODS Male ICR mice (5 weeks old) were castrated to establish a testosterone deficiency model. One month after castration, dihydrotestosterone 5 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously for 2 months. Serum total testosterone level was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High-frequency electrical stimulation was used to induce atrial arrhythmias. Whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to for single-cell electrophysiologic study. RESULTS Serum dihydrotestosterone levels of castration mice declined significantly but recovered with administration of exogenous dihydrotestosterone. In comparison with sham mice, the number of AF episodes significantly increased by 13.5-fold, AF rate increased by 3.75-fold, and AF duration prolonged in castrated mice. Dihydrotestosterone administration alleviated the occurrence of AF. Action potential duration at both 50% and 90% repolarization were markedly increased in castrated mice compared to sham controls. The late sodium current was enhanced in castrated male mice. These alterations were alleviated by treatment with dihydrotestosterone. Systemic application of the INa-L inhibitors ranolazine, eleclazine, and GS967 inhibited the occurrence of AF in castrated mice. CONCLUSION Testosterone deficiency contributed to the increased late sodium current, prolonged action potential repolarization, and increased susceptibility to AF. Blocking of late sodium current is beneficial against the occurrence of AF in castrated mice.