Increasing our knowledge on direct-developing frogs: The ontogeny of Ischnocnema henselii (Anura: Brachycephalidae)

@article{Goldberg2020IncreasingOK,
  title={Increasing our knowledge on direct-developing frogs: The ontogeny of Ischnocnema henselii (Anura: Brachycephalidae)},
  author={Javier Goldberg and Pedro Paulo Goulart Taucce and Silvia In{\'e}s Quinzio and C{\'e}lio Fernando Baptista Haddad and Florencia Vera Candioti},
  journal={Zoologischer Anzeiger},
  year={2020},
  volume={284},
  pages={78-87}
}
Parallel evolution of direct development in frogs – Skin and thyroid gland development in African Squeaker Frogs (Anura: Arthroleptidae: Arthroleptis)
TLDR
It is shown that skin in direct-developing African squeaker frogs (Arthroleptis) is also repatterned from a tadpole-like to an adult-like histology during a cryptic metamorphosis, suggesting that the development of many adult- features is still constrained by the ancestral dependency on thyroid hormone signaling.
Skeleton in the closet: hidden diversity in patterns of cranial and postcranial ontogeny in Neotropical direct-developing frogs (Anura: Brachycephaloidea)
TLDR
Results show an overall shared pattern that, as summarized for E. coqui, combines a partial recapitulation of aspects of the ancestral biphasic ontogeny with a profound remodeling that includes lost/novel structures and heterochronic shifts of developmental events.
Parallel evolution of direct development in frogs ‐ Skin and thyroid gland development in African Squeaker Frogs (Anura: Arthroleptidae: Arthroleptis)
TLDR
Developing frogs lack a free‐swimming tadpole and hatch from terrestrial eggs as fully formed froglets, and development is characterized by the condensed and transient formation of some tadpole‐specific features and the early formation of adult‐ specific features during a “cryptic” metamorphosis.
Direct development of the bush frog Raorchestes longchuanensis (Yang and Li 1978) under laborary conditions in Southern China
TLDR
Under laboratory conditions, it is found that R. longchuanensis can lay two clutches in a single month (as two were laid in the month of June).
Complete Embryonic and Larval Stages of Rana sakuraii (Ranidae), a Species that Metamorphoses without Feeding
TLDR
The normal development of the brown frog Rana sakuraii is observed from oocyte to completion of metamorphosis in the laboratory at 15±2°C and the labial teeth development of this non-feeding tadpole is generally weak and the formula at a given stage is greatly variable among individuals.

References

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Direct-developing frogs: ontogeny of Oreobates barituensis (Anura: Terrarana) and the development of a novel trait
TLDR
The morphological changes during embryonic development of Oreobates barituensis is similar to those of other Neotropical direct-developing species, and the location of its expanded part is interpreted as a heterotopic change resulting in a novel trait.
Direct development in African squeaker frogs (Anura: Arthroleptidae: Arthroleptis) reveals a mosaic of derived and plesiomorphic characters
TLDR
E egg deposition, clutch characteristics and embryonic development of the direct-developing squeaker frogs of the genus Arthroleptis are described, providing the first detailed description of direct development in Arth Roleptidae.
A Tale of a Tail: Variation during the Early Ontogeny of Haddadus binotatus (Brachycephaloidea: Craugastoridae) as Compared with Other Direct Developers
TLDR
The early ontogeny of the craugastorid Haddadus binotatus is described, making special emphasis on tail structure and development, and its differences and similarities with that of other terraranans.
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TLDR
Among the Amphibia there are numerous examples of the suppression to a varying extent of a larval stage in the life-history of Anuran genus Eleutherodactylus, which is distributed through the Caribbean and the adjacent mainlands.
Mechanistic basis of life history evolution in anuran amphibians: thyroid gland development in the direct-developing frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui.
TLDR
The hypothesis that the evolution of direct development in anurans is associated with precocious development and activity of the thyroid axis is supported, and measures of thyroid histology observed in E. coqui follow the pattern reported for metamorphosing amphibians.
The ontogeny of Pseudis platensis (Anura, Hylidae): Heterochrony and the effects of larval development on postmetamorphic life
TLDR
Using anatomical methods, new data is provided on the development of reproductive, digestive and integument systems, and age inference obtained from ontogenetic series of Pseudis platensis, indicating that at the end of metamorphosis, the adult skin is completely differentiated.
Developmental aspects of the direct‐developing frog Adelophryne maranguapensis
TLDR
The developmental profile of A. maranguapensis presented here will contribute to the understanding of the direct‐development model and may help preserve this endangered native Brazilian frog.
New Morphological Synapomorphies for the New World Direct-Developing Frogs (Amphibia: Anura: Terrarana)
TLDR
Based on a survey of the urogenital and vascular systems and the submandibular musculature of hyloid frogs, 16 characters that provide putative synapomorphies at a variety of hierarchic levels are reported.
Early developmental biology of Platymantis vitiana including supportive evidence of structural specialization unique to the ceratobatrachidae
TLDR
A novel 10-stage staging system of embryonic development for P. vitiana is provided which may also be useful for staging other members of the Platymantis genus and contributes to existing knowledge on the developmental biology of the little studied direct developing endotrophic anurans.
Oviposition and development of pumpkin toadlet, Brachycephalus ephippium (Spix) (Anura, Brachycephalidae)
TLDR
During a survey of this species' natural history in the vicinities of Campinas (22o52'S, 46o49'W), Sao Paulo State, field observations were made on the Oviposition behavior, in which after the male left the oviposition site, the female covered the surface of the eggs with soil particles.
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