Increasing ocean stratification over the past half-century

  title={Increasing ocean stratification over the past half-century},
  author={Guancheng Li and Lijing Cheng and Jiang Zhu and Kevin E. Trenberth and Michael Everett Mann and John P. Abraham},
  journal={Nature Climate Change},
  pages={1116 - 1123}
Seawater generally forms stratified layers with lighter waters near the surface and denser waters at greater depth. This stable configuration acts as a barrier to water mixing that impacts the efficiency of vertical exchanges of heat, carbon, oxygen and other constituents. Previous quantification of stratification change has been limited to simple differencing of surface and 200-m depth changes and has neglected the spatial complexity of ocean density change. Here, we quantify changes in ocean… 

Summertime increases in upper ocean stratification and mixed layer depth

The surface mixed layer of the world ocean regulates global climate by controlling heat and carbon exchanges between the atmosphere and the oceanic interior1–3. The mixed layer also shapes marine

Decrease of Annually Accumulated Tropical Cyclone‐Induced Sea Surface Cooling and Diapycnal Mixing in Recent Decades

Tropical cyclones (TCs) are an important source of turbulent mixing for the upper ocean at low latitudes, causing sea surface cooling and subsurface warming. A new estimate of annually accumulated

Subsurface Evolution and Persistence of Marine Heatwaves in the Northeast Pacific

The reappearance of a northeast Pacific marine heatwave (MHW) sounded alarms in late summer 2019 for a warming event on par with the 2013–2016 MHW known as The Blob. Despite these two events having

Climatological seasonal variation of the upper ocean salinity

Salinity plays a vital role in regulating ocean density, stratification and circulation, and is an indicator of the coupling between the ocean, atmosphere and land through the water cycle. This study

Restoring or maintaining the vertical mixing of oceanic waters

  • A. Heesterman
  • Environmental Science
    International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications (IJSRP)
  • 2021
Currents generated by wind and the interaction of the rotation of the earth and the gravitational pull of the sun and moon give rise to horizontal surface movement of sea water. Two basic mechanisms

Role of Surface Gravity Waves in Aquaplanet Ocean Climates

The impacts of SGWs upon the aquaplanet ocean are found to be consistent across cooler and warmer climates and could be relevant to understanding future projections of SGW climate, exoplanetary oceans, and the dynamics of the Southern Ocean mixed layer.

Enhanced hydrological cycle increases ocean heat uptake and moderates transient climate change

It is demonstrated that surface salinification driven by the amplified dry conditions, primarily in the subtropical ocean, accelerates ocean heat uptake and suggests that model spread in near-term climate sensitivity may be due in part to hydrological cycle and salinity differences.

Southeastern Tropical Atlantic Changing From Subtropical to Tropical Conditions

A warming and freshening trend of the mixed layer in the upper southeastern tropical Atlantic Ocean (SETA) is observed by the Argo float array during the time period of 2006–2020. The associated

Enhanced hydrological cycle increases ocean heat uptake and moderates transient climate sensitivity

The large-scale moistening of the atmosphere in response to the greenhouse gas increases tends to amplify the existing patterns of precipitation minus evaporation (P-E) which, in turn, amplifies the



Enhanced upper ocean stratification with climate change in the CMIP3 models

[1] Changes in upper ocean stratification during the second half of the 21st century, relative to the second half of the 20th century, are examined in ten of the CMIP3 climate models according to the

The warmer the ocean surface, the shallower the mixed layer. How much of this is true?

While SST increases at three study areas at midlatitudes, stratification both increases and decreases, and MLD deepens with enhanced deepening of winter MLDs at rates over 10 m  decade−1, it is found that MLD variability involves a subtle interplay between circulation and atmospheric forcing at mid latitudes.

Fifty-Year Trends in Global Ocean Salinities and Their Relationship to Broad-Scale Warming

Abstract Using over 1.6 million profiles of salinity, potential temperature, and neutral density from historical archives and the international Argo Program, this study develops the three-dimensional

Trend and Variability in Global Upper‐Ocean Stratification Since the 1960s

Many studies on future climate projection point out that with progressing of global warming, upper ‐ ocean density strati fi cation will strengthen over this century, and consequently, global ‐

Antarctic Bottom Water warming and freshening: Contributions to sea level rise, ocean freshwater bud

AbstractFreshening and warming of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) between the 1980s and 2000s are quantified, assessing the relative contributions of water-mass changes and isotherm heave. The analysis

Global warming-induced upper-ocean freshening and the intensification of super typhoons

It is demonstrated that freshening of the upper ocean, caused by greater rainfall in places where typhoons form, tends to intensify STYs by reducing their ability to cool the upper sea surface, whereas under twenty-first century projections, the positive effect of salinity is about half of the negative effect of ocean temperature changes.

Ocean heat uptake and its consequences for the magnitude of sea level rise and climate change

Under increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, ocean heat uptake moderates the rate of climate change, and thermal expansion makes a substantial contribution to sea level rise. In this paper we

Improved Estimates of Changes in Upper Ocean Salinity and the Hydrological Cycle

Ocean salinity records the hydrological cycle and its changes, but data scarcity and the large changes in sampling make the reconstructions of long-term salinity changes challenging. Here, we present

Uncertainties of the Ocean Heat Content Estimation Induced by Insufficient Vertical Resolution of Historical Ocean Subsurface Observations

AbstractAssessment of the upper-ocean (0–700 m) heat content (OHC) is a key task for monitoring climate change. However, irregular spatial and temporal distribution of historical subsurface

Cessation of deep convection in the open Southern Ocean under anthropogenic climate change

In 1974, newly available satellite observations unveiled the presence of a giant ice-free area, or polynya, within the Antarctic ice pack of the Weddell Sea, which persisted during the two following