Increased resistance to generalist herbivores in invasive populations of the California poppy (Eschscholzia californica)

  title={Increased resistance to generalist herbivores in invasive populations of the California poppy (Eschscholzia californica)},
  author={Elizabeth A. Leger and Matthew L. Forister},
  journal={Diversity and Distributions},
Escape from enemies in the native range is often assumed to contribute to the successful invasion of exotic species. Following optimal defence theory, which assumes a trade‐off between herbivore resistance and plant growth, some have predicted that the success of invasive species could be the result of the evolution of lower resistance to herbivores and increased allocation of resources to growth and reproduction. Lack of evidence for ubiquitous costs of producing plant toxins, and the… 
Effects of generalist herbivory on resistance and resource allocation by the invasive plant, Phytolacca americana
It is suggested that generalist herbivores are important drivers mediating the defensive strategies and resource allocation of the invasive American pokeweed.
Decreased resistance and increased tolerance to native herbivores of the invasive plant Sapium sebiferum
A field common garden study in the native range of Sapium sebiferum using seeds from native Chinese populations and invasive North American populations to compare their growth and herbivory resistance and a cage-pot experiment to compared their resistance and tolerance to Bikasha collaris beetles suggest that S. se biferum from the introduced range had lower resistance but higher tolerance to specialist herbivores.
Contrasting effects of specialist and generalist herbivores on resistance evolution in invasive plants.
It is concluded that enemy release from specialist Herbivores and biotic resistance from generalist herbivores have contrasting effects on resistance evolution in invasive plants.
Evolutionary increases in defense during a biological invasion
The results suggest that invasive plants may evolve to increase both resistance to generalists and tolerance to damage in introduced ranges, especially when the defense traits have low or no fitness costs.
Evaluation of the Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA) Hypothesis: Loss of Defense Against Generalist but not Specialist Herbivores
The better growth of Spodoptera caterpillars on European plants shows that some defenses have been lost in the introduced range, even though measures of secondary chemistry did not detect differences between continents, which offers partial support for defense predictions of the EICA hypothesis.
Cryptic seedling herbivory by nocturnal introduced generalists impacts survival, performance of native and exotic plants.
Counter to expectations, seedlings of native species were neither more vulnerable nor more palatable to nocturnal generalists than those of introduced species, despite large impacts of herbivores on growth.
Tolerance to herbivory, and not resistance, may explain differential success of invasive, naturalized, and native North American temperate vines
The results indicate that invasive vines are not escaping herbivory in the novel range, rather they are persisting despite high rates of herbivore damage in the field, suggesting that tolerance may also play a large role in facilitating invasions.
Increased competitive ability and herbivory tolerance in the invasive plant Sapium sebiferum
Increased competitive ability and higher herbivory damage of invasive populations relative to native populations of S. sebiferum support the EICA hypothesis, which implies that increased competitive ability of exotic plants may be associated with evolutionary changes in both resistance and tolerance to Herbivory in the introduced range.


Reduced resistance of invasive varieties of the alien tree Sapium sebiferum to a generalist herbivore
Although grasshoppers preferred to feed on Texas Sapium when offered a choice in the laboratory, extremely low herbivory levels in the field may have allowed the Texas seedlings to outperform the China seedlings in the common garden.
Increased susceptibility to enemies following introduction in the invasive plant Silene latifolia
Results suggest that the invasive NA phenotype has evolved at the expense of defensive abilities, and despite this increased susceptibility to enemies, NA populations still outperformed EU populations in this common garden.
Why Alien Invaders Succeed: Support for the Escape‐from‐Enemy Hypothesis
  • L. Wolfe
  • Environmental Science
    The American Naturalist
  • 2002
S. latifolia's successful North American invasion can, at least in part, be explained by escape from specialist enemies and lower levels of damage following introduction.
Reduced herbivore resistance in introduced smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) after a century of herbivore-free growth
Assessment of resistance to insect herbivory in two introduced populations of smooth cordgrass in Willapa Bay, Washington and San Francisco, California suggested that the WB founder was similar to the more resistant WB clones in its susceptibility to planthopper herbsivory.
Is the increased vigour of invasive weeds explained by a trade-off between growth and herbivore resistance?
It is suggested that the EICA hypothesis, as tested, does not explain the increased vigour of L. salicaria in non-indigenous habitats and the role of plant phenolics in purple loosestrife anti-herbivore defence is probably limited.
Invasive California poppies (Eschscholzia californica Cham.) grow larger than native individuals under reduced competition
The results indicate that genetic shifts in traits have occurred in invasive populations, and that the invasive plants are better at maximizing growth and reproduction in open environments.
Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability in Invasive Nonindigenous Plants: A Hypothesis
There are very few valid generalizations about invasive species, so that it is only possible to make weak, probabilistic predictions about which species will invade (Gilpin 1990; Daehler & Strong
Genetic differences in growth of an invasive tree species
The results of a 14-year common garden experiment with the Chinese Tallow Tree are presented, demonstrating significant post-invasion genetic differences in an invasive plant species.
Is invasion success explained by the enemy release hypothesis
Given the complexity of processes that underlie biological invasions, it is argued against a simple relationship between enemy ‘release’ and the vigour, abundance or impact of NIS.
A meta‐analysis of biotic resistance to exotic plant invasions
A meta-analysis of the plant invasions literature concludes that ecological interactions rarely enable communities to resist invasion, but instead constrain the abundance of invasive species once they have successfully established.