Increased perceptual and conceptual processing difficulty makes the immeasurable measurable: negative priming in the absence of probe distractors.

Negative priming (NP) refers to the finding that people's responses to probe targets previously presented as prime distractors are usually slower and more error prone than to unrepeated stimuli. In a typical NP experiment, each probe target is accompanied by a distractor. It is an accepted, albeit puzzling, finding that the NP effect depends on the presence… (More)