Increased methylation of glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in adults with a history of childhood maltreatment: a link with the severity and type of trauma

@article{Perroud2011IncreasedMO,
  title={Increased methylation of glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in adults with a history of childhood maltreatment: a link with the severity and type of trauma},
  author={Nader Perroud and Ariane Paoloni-Giacobino and Paco Prada and Emilie Olié and Annick Salzmann and Rosetta Nicastro and S{\'e}bastien Guillaume and Dominique Mouthon and Christelle Stouder and Karen Dieben and Philippe Huguelet and Philippe Courtet and Alain Malafosse},
  journal={Translational Psychiatry},
  year={2011},
  volume={1}
}
Childhood maltreatment, through epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), influences the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis). We investigated whether childhood maltreatment and its severity were associated with increased methylation of the exon 1F NR3C1 promoter, in 101 borderline personality disorder (BPD) and 99 major depressive disorder (MDD) subjects with, respectively, a high and low rate of childhood maltreatment, and 15 MDD subjects with comorbid… 

Childhood maltreatment and methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 in bipolar disorder.

  • N. PerroudA. Dayer J. Aubry
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    The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science
  • 2014
TLDR
Early-life adversities have a sustained effect on the HPA axis through epigenetic processes and this effect may be measured in peripheral blood.

Methylation of the leukocyte glucocorticoid receptor gene promoter in adults: associations with early adversity and depressive, anxiety and substance-use disorders

TLDR
Evidence of reduced methylation of NR3C1 in association with childhood maltreatment and depressive, anxiety and substance-use disorders in adults is presented, consistent with emerging findings, suggesting complexity in the regulation of this gene.

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TLDR
Compared to noneating disordered women, women with BN and comorbid BPD showed significantly more methylation of specific exon 1C sites, and these findings associate BN (when accompanied by BPD or suicidality) with hypermethylation of certain GR ex on 1C promoter sites.

Dynamic stress-related epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene promoter during early development: The role of child maltreatment

TLDR
Results indicate that maltreated children evidence higher baseline levels of NR3C1 methylation, significant decreases in methylation over time, and then at follow-up, lower levels ofmethylation, relative to nonmaltreated preschoolers.

Glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) promoter is hypermethylated in Thai females with major depressive disorder.

TLDR
Higher levels of methylation at the NR3C1 promoter may be associated with MDD in a gender-specific manner, and Bisulfite pyrosequencing on 7 CpG dinucleotides in the region showed significantly higher methylation levels in MDD patients.

Epigenetic modifications of the glucocorticoid receptor gene are associated with the vulnerability to psychopathology in childhood maltreatment

TLDR
The interaction between childhood maltreatment and hGR methylation is found to be strongly correlated with an increased vulnerability to psychopathology providing evidence of epigenome × environment interactions.
...

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