BACKGROUND [corrected] Allergic rhinitis is one of risk factors for development of allergic asthma. METHODS 9 patients with asthma, 16 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) due to grass or rye pollen sensitization and 17 healthy control subjects were recruited to the study. SAR patients were identified by history, skinprick test, specific IgE and positive nasal allergen challenge. Every subject underwent the methacholine bronchial provocation test and sputum induction. Levels of RANTES were measured in supernatant of induced sputum. RESULTS Increased percentage of eosinophils in induced sputum in asthma compared to control group (p=0.01) but not in SAR patients compared to healthy subjects (p=0.13) were found. Similarly, asthmatic patients (p=0.01) but not SAR patients had increased levels of RANTES in sputum compared to healthy subjects. CONCLUSION Increased levels of RANTES in induced sputum of patients with chronic asthma but not in SAR patients indicate that RANTES is important in pathogenesis of chronic airway inflammation.