Increased expression and function of glutamate transporters in multiple sclerosis

@article{VallejoIllarramendi2006IncreasedEA,
  title={Increased expression and function of glutamate transporters in multiple sclerosis},
  author={Ainara Vallejo-Illarramendi and Mar{\'i}a Domercq and Fernando Pérez-Cerdá and Rivka G. Ravid and Carlos Matute},
  journal={Neurobiology of Disease},
  year={2006},
  volume={21},
  pages={154-164}
}

Figures and Tables from this paper

Increased expression of cystine/glutamate antiporter in multiple sclerosis
TLDR
It is shown that human activated monocytes release glutamate through cystine/glutamate antiporter xc- and that the expression of the catalytic subunit xCT is upregulated as a consequence of monocyte activation, revealing a link between inflammation and excitotoxicity in demyelinating diseases.
Glutamate Transporters: Expression and Function in Oligodendrocytes
TLDR
Potential roles of oligodendrocyte-expressed EAATs in contributing to extracellular glutamate homeostasis, and in regulating oligodENDrocytes maturation and CNS myelination by exerting signaling functions that have traditionally been associated with glutamate receptors are discussed.
Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters in Physiology and Disorders of the Central Nervous System
TLDR
The studies in cellular and animal models, as well as in humans, that highlight the roles of EAATs in the pathogenesis of these devastating disorders are reviewed.
The Regulation of Astrocytic Glutamate Transporters in Health and Neurodegenerative Diseases
TLDR
The relevance of this non-cell-autonomous dependence to age- and neurodegenerative disease-associated decline in astrocytic EAAT expression is discussed, plus the implications for disease progression and putative therapeutic strategies are discussed.
Glutamate Receptor Expression in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions
Blockade of receptors for the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate ameliorates neurological clinical signs in models of the CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS). To
Transporters for L‐glutamate: An update on their molecular pharmacology and pathological involvement
TLDR
Improvements have been made in the understanding of the regulation of EAATs, including their trafficking, splicing and post‐translational modification.
Short communication Association of an EAAT2 polymorphism with higher glutamate concentration in relapsing multiple sclerosis
TLDR
The findings suggest that glutamate homeostasis is compromised in MS and that carrying a mutation sited in the promoter of the glutamate transporter EAAT2 may contribute to this alteration in relapsing MS.
Alterations in glutamate transport and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in the rat brain during acute phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
TLDR
The results suggest that during the inflammatory conditions in the acute phase of EAE, disturbances in glutamate transport take place that may lead to the excitotoxicity.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 69 REFERENCES
Multiple sclerosis: Altered glutamate homeostasis in lesions correlates with oligodendrocyte and axonal damage
TLDR
Imbalanced glutamate homeostasis contributes to axonal and oligodendroglial pathology in MS, and Manipulation of this imbalance may have therapeutic import.
Expression of glutamate transporters in rat optic nerve oligodendrocytes
TLDR
Results provide evidence for the expression of functional sodium‐dependent glutamate transporters in optic nerve oligodendrocytes, and suggest that this cell type may play a role in the glutamate–glutamine cycle.
Expression of excitatory amino acid transporter‐2 (EAAT‐2) and glutamine synthetase (GS) in brain macrophages and microglia of SIVmac251‐infected macaques
TLDR
This observation might modify current understanding of brain inflammation, which considers activated microglia and brain macrophages as the main neurotoxic cells through their production of a variety of neurotoxins, including glutamate.
Glutamate uptake
Excitotoxic oligodendrocyte death and axonal damage induced by glutamate transporter inhibition
TLDR
Overall, these results demonstrate that the integrity of oligodendrocytes and white matter depends on proper glutamate transporter function, and deregulated transporter activity may contribute to acute and chronic white matter damage.
Changes of retinal glutamate transporter GLT-1 mRNA levels following optic nerve damage.
TLDR
Changes in GLT-1 mRNA expression following axonal trauma of RGCs can lead to an imbalance of glutamate homeostasis that may cause local accumulation of toxic concentrations of the neurotransmitter glutamate and further irreversible excitotoxic damage of R GCs.
Glutamate excitotoxicity in a model of multiple sclerosis
TLDR
Glutamate excitotoxicity seems to be an important mechanism in autoimmune demyelination, and its prevention with AMPA/kainate antagonists may prove to be a effective therapy for multiple sclerosis.
Glutamate transporter GLT-1 is highly expressed in activated microglia following facial nerve axotomy.
Glutamate Induces Rapid Upregulation of Astrocyte Glutamate Transport and Cell-Surface Expression of GLAST
TLDR
The results suggest that cell-surface expression of GLAST can be rapidly regulated by glutamate through a process triggered by GLAST activity and involving the actin cytoskeleton, which provides a mechanism by which changes in extracellular glutamate concentrations could rapidly modulate astrocyte glutamate transport capacity.
...
...