Increased carrying reduces infant crying: a randomized controlled trial.

  title={Increased carrying reduces infant crying: a randomized controlled trial.},
  author={Urs A. Hunziker and Ronald G. Barr},
  volume={77 5},
The crying pattern of normal infants in industrialized societies is characterized by an overall increase until 6 weeks of age followed by a decline until 4 months of age with a preponderance of evening crying. We hypothesized that this "normal" crying could be reduced by supplemental carrying, that is, increased carrying throughout the day in addition to that which occurs during feeding and in response to crying. In a randomized controlled trial, 99 mother-infant pairs were assigned to an… 

A prospective study of crying during the first year of infancy

‘Crying’ group infants were reported to cry significantly more than controls for the whole of their first year, but somewhat less at 12 months than at 4 months, although these age differences were found to be statistically nonsignificant.

Persistent infant crying.

Infant crying is not uniform across the day, but shows a circadian organisation from the first weeks onwards, and crying commonly clusters in the afternoon and evening.


A prospective study of fetal and postnatal growth and development in a group of babies whose mothers were residents of an inner‐city health district in the north of England, it was not possible to predict which babies would cry a lot except that breast‐fed infants tended to cry less.

Infant crying and maternal holding in the first 2 months of age: an Italian diary study

Findings about the individual stability of daily crying in the first 8 weeks of age confirmed previous findings about the normal developmental pattern of infant crying, but future research should take account of cultural variations in maternal holding in studying infant crying in different societies.

Normal early infant behaviour patterns

It is against a background of normal early infant behaviour patterns that one can evaluate interventions aimed at altering such behaviour and dealing with the vexed problem of ‘colic’.

Infant crying patterns in the first year: normal community and clinical findings.

A large developmental shift in crying amount, and two age-related changes of crying pattern, were found.

Caregiving and Early Infant Crying in a Danish Community

  • M. Alvarez
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP
  • 2004
Danish caregiving practices may partially explain the lower durations of infant distress and the lower ratio of cry to fuss, however, some infants fuss/cry a great deal despite sensitive care, which may reflect individual differences in infant maturation of behavior regulation.

Excessive infant crying: a controlled study of mothers helping mothers.

Behavioral management was more effective in reducing fussing/crying than spending time with the mother talking through the problem or just waiting for spontaneous remission.