Incomplete immune reconstitution after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with severe CD4+ cell depletion.

@article{Lederman2003IncompleteIR,
  title={Incomplete immune reconstitution after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with severe CD4+ cell depletion.},
  author={Howard M Lederman and Paige L Williams and Julia W. Wu and Thomas G. Evans and Susan E. Cohn and John Allen McCutchan and Susan L Koletar and Richard Hafner and Elizabeth Connick and Fred T. Valentine and M. Juliana McElrath and Norbert J. Roberts and Judith S. Currier},
  journal={The Journal of infectious diseases},
  year={2003},
  volume={188 12},
  pages={
          1794-803
        }
}
Immune function was observed for 144 weeks in 643 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects who (1) had nadir CD4+ cell counts of <50 cells/mm3, followed by a sustained increase to > or =100 cells/mm3 after the initiation of HAART, and (2) were enrolled in a randomized trial of continued azithromycin prophylaxis versus withdrawal for prevention of Mycobacterium avium complex disease. The median CD4+ cell count was 226 cells/mm3 at entry and 358 cells/mm3 at week 144. Anergy (80.2% of… Expand
Change in T-Lymphocyte Count after Initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Patients with History of Mycobacterium Avium Complex Infection
TLDR
MAC infection at the time of HAART initiation is an important deleterious factor for immune reconstitution and a better understanding of the underlying mechanism and an evaluation of additional treatment strategies are necessary to help immune restoration in such circumstances. Expand
Long-term follow-up of HIV-infected individuals who have significant increases in CD4+ cell counts during antiretroviral therapy.
  • S. Koletar, P. Williams, +5 authors J. Currier
  • Medicine
  • Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2004
TLDR
CD4+ cell count increases are related to virological control, with continuing increases seen in individuals who are immunosuppressed, and virologic suppression based on HIV RNA levels were also associated with predicted CD4- cell responses. Expand
Immune correlates of virological response in HIV-positive patients after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
TLDR
Virological suppression may allow Bcl-2 and IL-15 hyperexpression during incomplete immune-reconstitution phase, while more complete immune reconstitution appeared to be marked by both high TRECs and low LSA levels, possibly indicating both central and peripheral CD4+ T-cell repopulations at this stage. Expand
Presence of HIV-Specific CD4+ T-Cell Responses in HIV-Infected Subjects With Sustained Virologic Control After Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
TLDR
Results show that an HIV-specific proliferative response is preferentially observed in treated CI subjects with CD4+ T-cell counts of >200/μL, however, in treatedCI subjects with a significant degree of CD4+, it may also be observed in 35% provided that the duration of virus suppression is long enough, which may have implications for future therapeutic strategies. Expand
Lower CD4+ T Lymphocyte Nadirs May Indicate Limited Immune Reconstitution in HIV-1 Infected Individuals on Potent Antiretroviral Therapy: Analysis of Immunophenotypic Marker Results of AACTG 5067
TLDR
The association of CD4+ T lymphocyte nadir with the extent of immune reconstitution in HIV-infected individuals suggests that HIV-1 may cause irreparable immune system damage despite potent ART. Expand
Highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus increases CD40 ligand expression and IL-12 production in cells ex vivo.
TLDR
HAART-mediated control of viral replication led to partial restoration of CD40L upregulation/expression, and to increased IL-12 production, but the magnitude of the response depended on the baseline characteristics of the treated patients. Expand
Incomplete Recovery of Pneumococcal CD4 T Cell Immunity after Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Malawian Adults
TLDR
Impaired control of pneumococcal colonisation and incomplete restoration ofneumococcal-specific immunity may explain the persistently higher risk of IPD amongst HIV-infected adults on ART. Expand
Delaying a treatment switch in antiretroviral-treated HIV type 1-infected patients with detectable drug-resistant viremia does not have a profound effect on immune parameters: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5115.
TLDR
Delaying a treatment switch in patients with partial virologic suppression and stable CD4+ T cells does not have profound effects on immune parameters. Expand
Efficacy of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) in patients with advanced HIV-1 infection and blunted immune response to HAART.
TLDR
The results suggest that in patients with advanced HIV-infection showing a blunted immune response to HAART, rIL-2 might increase the pool of CD4+ T-cells by down-regulating the status of immune activation. Expand
Normalized CD8+ but not CD4+ lymphocyte IL-2 expression is associated with early treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy.
TLDR
Improvements in both CD4+ and CD8+ responsiveness with HAART are demonstrated, with normalization of IL-2 production byCD8+ lymphocytes seen early in patients receiving HAART even when there was only a small increase inCD4+ lymphocyte numbers. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 34 REFERENCES
Clinical indicators of immune restoration following highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • E. Cooney
  • Medicine
  • Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2002
The course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease is characterized by a progressive decline in immune function. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has allowed patientsExpand
Immune restoration does not invariably occur following long-term HIV-1 suppression during antiretroviral therapy. INCAS Study Group.
TLDR
Patients with prolonged undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA levels during antiretroviral therapy do not invariably show immune restoration, and naïve T-cell recovery in the setting of complete viral suppression is a gradual process, similar to that reported for immune recovery in adults after chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. Expand
Restored humoral immune response to influenza vaccination in HIV‐infected adults treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy
TLDR
A recovery of the humoral immune response to influenza antigens in HIV-infected individuals treated with HAART is demonstrated, indicating that functional improvement of antigen specific CD4+ T helper cell reponses occurs. Expand
Proliferative responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antigens in HIV-1-infected patients with immune reconstitution.
Cell-mediated immunity is affected early in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cell proliferative responses are not measurable in most patients but have beenExpand
Poor CD4 T cell restoration after suppression of HIV-1 replication may reflect lower thymic function
TLDR
Poor CD4 T cell increases observed in some patients with good virologic response to HAART may be caused by failure of thymic T cell production. Expand
CD4+ T-lymphocyte nadir and the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on phenotypic and functional immune restoration in HIV-1 infection.
TLDR
Delaying HAART may limit phenotypic and functional immune restoration in HIV-1 infection, and responses to tetanus toxoid were more common with higher CD4+ T-lymphocyte nadirs. Expand
Inconsistent reconstitution of cytomegalovirus-specific cell-mediated immunity in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-immune recovery was characterized in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. CMV lymphocyte proliferation (LP),Expand
Antiretroviral therapy with protease inhibitors has an early, immune reconstitution-independent beneficial effect on Candida virulence and oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects.
TLDR
PIs exert an early, immune reconstitution-independent effect on Candida virulence in the oral cavities of HIV-positive subjects, and are associated with clinical resolution of oral candidiasis but not with late and inconstant recovery of anticandidal cellular immunity. Expand
Discontinuation of Mycobacterium avium Complex Prophylaxis in Patients with Antiretroviral TherapyInduced Increases in CD4+ Cell Count
TLDR
A multicenter clinical trial of azithromycin in patients with a previous CD4+ cell count less than 0.05 109 cells/L to determine the need for continued prophylaxis against M. avium complex infection and to compare the rates of azITHromycin-preventable diagnoses and AIDS-defining infections. Expand
Positive effects of combined antiretroviral therapy on CD4+ T cell homeostasis and function in advanced HIV disease.
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) increases CD4(+) cell numbers, but its ability to correct the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced immune deficiency remains unknown. A three-phaseExpand
...
1
2
3
4
...