Incidence of depression in the Stirling County Study: historical and comparative perspectives

  title={Incidence of depression in the Stirling County Study: historical and comparative perspectives},
  author={J Michael Murphy and Nan M. Laird and Richard R. Monson and Arthur M. Sobol and Alexander H. Leighton},
  journal={Psychological Medicine},
  pages={505 - 514}
Background. The Stirling County Study provides a 40-year perspective on the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in an adult population in Atlantic Canada. Across samples selected in 1952, 1970 and 1992 current prevalence of depression was stable. This paper concerns time trends in annual incidence as assessed through cohorts selected from the first two samples. Methods. Consistent interview data were analysed by a computerized diagnostic algorithm. The cohorts consisted of subjects at risk… 
The tide has turned: incidence of depression declined in community living young-old adults over one decade
Findings suggest that favourable developments of protective factors have counterbalanced unfavourable effects of risk factors on the incidence of depression, resulting in a net reduction of depression incidence among young-old adults.
Not an age of depression after all? Incidence rates may be stable over time
  • E. Paykel
  • Psychology
    Psychological Medicine
  • 2000
In depression, development and widespread use of antidepressants, newer patterns of care, and in the opposite direction, increased urbanization with its accompanying social pressures, could have produced considerable changes in outcome in the last 40 years.
Depression in the Lundby Study 1947-1997 Incidence, course and risk-factors
The Lundby study had encountered many methodological problems such as changing diagnostic systems, recall bias, low interrater-reliability over time, migration and attrition, which justify comparisons over time.
Official psychiatric morbidity and the incidence of schizophrenia 1881–1994
Stability in the epidemiology of schizophrenia at a geographical level is found despite important demographic changes and the rise in both local and national official statistics of psychiatric morbidity 1881–1994 was not associated with a significant increase in the incidence of schizophrenia.
Cigarette smoking in relation to depression: historical trends from the Stirling County Study.
The authors discuss hypotheses involving "self-medication," risk-taking, and changes in the social climate but conclude that the relationships between smoking and depression are probably multiple and complex.
Depressive symptoms in the Belgian population: disentangling age and cohort effects
The intensity of depressive symptoms increases linearly with age, but significant age-by-cohorts interactions were detected, indicating that the relationship between age and depression varies across cohorts.
Time Trends in Lifetime Incidence Rates of First-Time Diagnosed Bipolar and Depressive Disorders Across 16 Years in Danish Psychiatric Hospitals: A Nationwide Study.
Time trends in incidence rates showed an increase for bipolar disorder and depressive disorders across 16 years, but found that some of the observed increase in incidence rate was related to a more widespread trend in Danish society of seeking and receiving psychiatric assistance.


A 40-year perspective on the prevalence of depression: the Stirling County Study.
Three samples over a 40-year period showed a stable current prevalence of depression using the DPAX methods that was comparable in 1992 with the current rates using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, casting doubt on the interpretation that depression is generally increasing.
Incidence of depression and anxiety: the Stirling County Study.
The incidence of depression and anxiety disorders in a general population using data gathered in a 16-year follow-up of an adult sample selected as part of the Stirling County Study (Canada), is found to be approximately nine cases per 1,000 persons per year.
A comparison of diagnostic interviews for depression in the Stirling County study: challenges for psychiatric epidemiology.
Comprehension of an interview can be improved by using multiple questions for dysphoria and a simpler mode of inquiry, and evidence from a 16-year follow-ups indicates that depression diagnosed by the DPAX is a serious disorder in terms of morbidity and mortality.
Incidence of Mental Disorders in the Finnish UKKI Study
Estimates of the incidence of different mental disorders from a Finnish prospective epidemiological follow-up study, the UKKI Study, were rather close to those of the Swedish Lundby Study, but nowhere near the results of the American ECA Study.
The changing rate of major depression. Cross-national comparisons. Cross-National Collaborative Group.
Cross-nationally, the more recent birth cohorts are at increased risk for major depression, and the linking of demographic, epidemiologic, economic, and social indices by country to these changes may clarify environmental conditions that influence the rates of major depression.
The Stirling County Study: Then and now
The Stirling County Study was started more than 40 years ago. In the context of the field of community-based psychiatric epidemiology as a whole, the Stirling Study is reviewed using three time
Sex differences in rates of depression: cross-national perspectives.
Affective disorders and mortality. A general population study.
A 16-year prospective study of a general population sample indicates that those who had reported a depression and/or anxiety disorder at baseline experienced 1.5 times the number of deaths expected
Increasing rates of depression.
Trends in cohort changes are evident in the United States, Sweden, Germany, Canada, and New Zealand, but not in comparable studies conducted in Korea and Puerto Rico and of Mexican-Americans living in theUnited States.