Incidence of autism spectrum disorders: Changes over time and their meaning *

@article{Rutter2005IncidenceOA,
  title={Incidence of autism spectrum disorders: Changes over time and their meaning *},
  author={Michael L. Rutter},
  journal={Acta P{\ae}diatrica},
  year={2005},
  volume={94}
}
  • M. Rutter
  • Published 1 January 2005
  • Medicine
  • Acta Pædiatrica
Aim: Several reviews have noted a huge increase in the rate of diagnosed autism spectrum disorders. The main aims of this paper are: 1) to use published empirical findings to consider whether the rise reflects a true increase in incidence, as distinct from the consequences of better ascertainment and a broadening of the diagnostic concept; and 2) to consider how epidemiological data may be used to test hypotheses about possible causal influences, using MMR and thimerosal as examples. Methods… 
Autism-Recent Advances
Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children: Medical and Social Perspectives.
TLDR
Overall, it is argued, the work supports the conceptualisation of ASD as both a biologically and socially determined condition.
The incidence of diagnosed autism spectrum disorders in Finland
TLDR
An eightfold increase in the incidence rates in children of diagnosed ASD and specifically in childhood autism, Asperger's syndrome and PDD-NOS and born between 1987 and 1992 based on inpatient register information is reported.
The Controversy That Will Not Go Away: Vaccines and Autism
TLDR
In order to reestablish the public’s trust in vaccination, it is imperative that rigorously researched scientific information on the issue of vaccines and autism is accurately collected and appropriately disseminated.
Commentary: Diagnostic change and the increased prevalence of autism.
TLDR
The approach was to fit a predictive model to the California DDS population of persons born before 1987, prior to the major rise in the autism caseload, in order to estimate the odds that a child with an autism diagnosis between 1992 and 2005 previously had a diagnosis of mental retardation (MR).
Invited Perspective: Air Pollution and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Are We There Yet?
TLDR
The relationship between air pollutants and ASD presents inherent research challenges that may account for some inconsistency among studies, especially regarding the heightened vulnerability during early pregnancy and the absence of associations with exposures in later trimesters.
The autism epidemic: fact or artifact?
TLDR
How broadening diagnostic criteria, younger age at diagnosis, and improved efficiency of case ascertainment could produce temporal trends in the incidence and prevalence of AD, measured by calendar year and by year of birth, in a hypothetical population of children 0 to 18 across the years 1950 to 2020 is calculated.
Genetics of Autism
Autism is the prototypical form of a group of disorders that are referred to as the pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). It is a behaviorally defined syndrome characterized by the presence of
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 108 REFERENCES
Epidemiological Surveys of Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders: An Update
  • E. Fombonne
  • Psychology
    Journal of autism and developmental disorders
  • 2003
TLDR
There is evidence that changes in case definition and improved awareness explain much of the upward trend of rates in recent decades, however, available epidemiological surveys do not provide an adequate test of the hypothesis of a changing incidence of PDDs.
Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children.
TLDR
The authors' results suggest that rates of PDD are higher than previously reported, and attention is nevertheless drawn to the important needs of a substantial minority of preschool children.
The epidemiology of autism: a review.
  • E. Fombonne
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Psychological medicine
  • 1999
TLDR
Based on recent surveys, a minimum estimate of 18.7/10000 for all forms of pervasive developmental disorders was derived, which outlines the needs in special services for a large group of children.
Prevalence of autism and parentally reported triggers in a north east London population
TLDR
The prevalence of autism, which was apparently rising from 1979 to 1992, reached a plateau from 1992 to 1996 at a rate of some 2.6 per 1000 live births, suggesting that the earlier recorded rise in prevalence was not a real increase but was likely due to factors such as increased recognition, a greater willingness on the part of educationalists and families to accept the diagnostic label, and better recording systems.
The Changing Prevalence of Autism in California
TLDR
Data suggest that improvements in detection and changes in diagnosis account for the observed increase in autism; whether there has also been a true increase in incidence is not known.
THE RECOGNITION OF AUTISM IN CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME‐IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERVENTION AND SOME SPECULATIONS ABOUT PATHOLOGY
TLDR
The implications, for both families and children, of the failure to diagnose autism when it co‐occurs with other conditions such as Down syndrome are discussed and some speculations about possible pathological associations are presented.
No effect of MMR withdrawal on the incidence of autism: a total population study.
TLDR
It is found that MMR vaccination is most unlikely to be a main cause of autism spectrum disorders, that it cannot explain the rise over time in the incidence of ASD, and that withdrawal of MMR in countries where it is still being used cannot be expected to lead to a reduction in the frequency of ASD.
Autism: a novel form of mercury poisoning.
TLDR
A review of medical literature and US government data suggests that many cases of idiopathic autism are induced by early mercury exposure from thimerosal, and this type of autism represents an unrecognized mercurial syndrome.
Thimerosal and the occurrence of autism: negative ecological evidence from Danish population-based data.
TLDR
The ecological data do not support a correlation between thimerosal-containing vaccines and the incidence of autism.
Prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders in the British nationwide survey of child mental health
TLDR
Compared to children with a psychiatric disorder other than PDD, social but not behavioural problems were more frequent in the PDD group and parents of children with PDDs had higher rates of psychological distress than those from the two comparison groups.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...