Incidence and signficiance of mixed affective states in a bipolar population.

  title={Incidence and signficiance of mixed affective states in a bipolar population.},
  author={Jonathan M Himmelhoch and D Mulla and J. F. Neil and Thomas P. Detre and David Jerome Kupfer},
  journal={Archives of general psychiatry},
  volume={33 9},
The simultaneous existence of manic and depressive symptoms in a manic-depressive patient was first described by Kraepelin. This so-called mixed state has come to have much theoretical significance in recent hypotheses about the nature of bipolar affective disorders. In this investigation a mixed state is shown to be the initial episode in 31% of 84 manic-depressive outpatients. Moreover, the presence of "mixed" features does not correlate with severity of illness or mood circularity, but does… CONTINUE READING

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