Incidence and properties of Staphylococcus aureus associated with turkeys during processing and further-processing operations

  title={Incidence and properties of Staphylococcus aureus associated with turkeys during processing and further-processing operations},
  author={B. W. Adams and G. C. Mead},
  journal={Journal of Hygiene},
  pages={479 - 490}
SUMMARY The incidence of Staphylococcus aureus on turkeys sampled at various stages of processing and further-processing was determined on four occasions at each of three different processing plants. For freshly-slaughtered birds, counts from neck skin varied from plant to plant over the range < 102 to > 105/g but in all cases the corresponding counts obtained from carcasses sampled after chilling rarely exceeded 103/g and the same was true for samples of mechanically recovered meat (MRM), the… 

Detection of the site of contamination by Staphylococcus aureus within the defeathering machinery of a poultry processing plant

Data obtained from four visits to the processing plant over a period of 10 months suggested that the incidence of S. aureus on the birds is affected by the season (summer or winter) whereas levels in the plucking machines depended on the day of sampling.

Microbiological survey of five poultry processing plants in the UK.

1. Neck skin samples were taken from chickens and turkeys at all the main stages of processing to monitor changes in total viable count (TVC) and counts of coliforms and pseudomonads. 2. Processing

Differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus from freshly slaughtered poultry and strains 'endemic' to processing plants by biochemical and physiological tests.

A comparison was made of 27 'endemic' strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 35 strains from freshly slaughtered birds, isolated at five commercial slaughterhouses processing chickens or turkeys, which revealed several distinct groupings which were influenced by strain type, processing plant and bird origin.

Staphylococcus aureus in Western Australian poultry

The presence of Staphylococcus aureus on poultry and poultry processing equipment, in two processing plants in the Perth metropolitan area, was determined from eight visits to the plants over a 5

Plasmid profiles as indicators of the source of contamination of Staphylococcus aureus endemic within poultry processing plants

A total of 530 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the defeathering machinery of a chicken processing plant and from neck skin samples of carcasses at different stages of processing

Adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus: Its importance in poultry processing

The main contamination occurs on the rubber fingers of the defeathering machinery, where the endemic strains, which grow in clumps and are eight times more resistant to hypochlorite than non‐endemic strains, resist cleaning and disinfection by producing a glucosamine‐rich extracellular polymer, which has been characterised by electron microscopy and chemical tests.

Chlorine resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from turkeys and turkey products

When tested in phosphate buffer at pH 7·0, strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from turkeys immediately after commercial slaughter were reduced in viability by at least 10000‐fold following

Hygiene Problems and Control of Process Contamination

Although some of the residual organisms are likely to be of public health concern, those bacteria capable of spoiling the product under chill conditions, such as Pseudomonas spp.

Detection the enterotoxin producing capacity of coagulase positive Staphylococcus by EIA (Enzyme immuno assay) isolated from turkey meat.

The examined turkey meats were found to be partially contaminated with enterotoxigenic coagulase positive staphylococci, which can be substantially achieved by the establishment and management of poultry slaughterhouses, which apply systems such as GMP, HACCP and general hygienic practices.

Persistence of Escherichia coli in a poultry processing plant

It was concluded that thorough cleaning and disinfection procedures should control E. coli contamination of slaughterhouse equipment.



Enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from poultry: raw poultry carcases as a potential food-poisoning hazard.

Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from end-of-lay poultry carcases obtained from a plant at two different stages of processing before and after storage at different temperatures and found to consist of poultry and human specific strains and each of these groups contained strains able to produce enterotoxin.

Contamination of broiler chickens by Staphylococcus aureus during processing; incidence and origin.

Staphylococcus aureus was present in only small numbers on the skin of broiler chickens before processing, but during processing, contamination of carcases with this organism increased to > 103/g of skin and it was shown that the increase in contamination was due to a strain of Staph.

Staphylococcus aureus in commercial laying flocks: incidence and characteristics of strains isolated from chicks, pullets and hens in an integrated commercial enterprise.

The degree of surface colonisation of chicks and pullets was low during rearing but rose to a maximum at mid-lay (50 weeks) when the organism was readily detectable on almost all hens.

Quantitative aspects of the Staphylococcus aureus flora of poultry.

Important populations of Staphylococcus aureus were found to be present on the body surfaces of live poultry originating from flocks without history of staphylococcal disease. Their sized increased

Enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Chickens.

Differences in biochemical properties may suggest that the enterotoxigenic strains of chicken origin were proper to humans but not to chickens.

Biochemical characteristics and enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from poultry.

Starch gel zymograms of intracellular esterases showed a general correlation with the biotyping and phage typing results, and overall 62% of strains were enterotoxigenic, the majority producing enterotoxin A.

The distribution of Staphylococcus aureus in a poultry processing plant.

A set of phages previously isolated from poultry strains of Staphylococcus aureus was used to type such isolates from poultry before, during and after processing in a poultry plant and a site of cross-contamination within the plant was discovered.

Typing of Coagulase-Positive Staphylococci by Proteolytic Activity on Buffered Caseinate-Agar, with Special Reference to Bacteriophage Nontypable Strains

In this survey, 63 of the strains investigated could not be typed by the international set of typing phages but could be readily differentiated in terms of their proteolytic activities at 37 and 30 C, suggesting that the proteinases produced by staphylococci are strain-specific.

Characterization of poultry isolates of Staphylococcus aureus by a new set of poultry phages.

A set of phages has been isolated from strains of Staphylococcus aureus, non-typable with the International (human) phage set, recovered from processed poultry, and biochemical tests confirmed divisions, members of each group exhibiting characteristics of both ‘human’ and ‘animal’strains.

Factors affecting the use of chlorine in the spin‐chilling of eviscerated poultry

Synopsis Conditions have been determined under which chlorination can be used to eliminate both faecal and spoilage bacteria from the water used for chilling eviscerated poultry carcasses, thus