Inbreeding is associated with lower 2D: 4D digit ratio

  title={Inbreeding is associated with lower 2D: 4D digit ratio},
  author={Barış {\"O}zener and Peter L. Hurd and Izzet Duyar},
  journal={American Journal of Human Biology},
While consanguineous marriage has been shown to result in a small increase in risk of recessive Mendelian disorders among offspring, far less research has been conducted on the effects of inbreeding on complex traits. These effects, thought to result from increased developmental instability due to loss of heterozygosity, are expected to be found more pervasively than rare recessive Mendelian traits and are expected to result in increased developmental noise. Here, we test for a direct effect of… 
Relationship between parental consanguinity and digit ratios (2D:4D) among Turkish newborns in Sivas
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of parental consanguinity on the 2D:4D digit ratio of newborn infants, whose parents were the first cousins.
Bu makalede, Antropoloji egitimlerini Turkiye’de yapmis olan arastirmacilarin Fiziksel Antropoloji konusunda calismalarinin bibliyografyasi verilmistir. Bu calismalar antropometri, ergonomi, obezite,
Hadza hunter-gatherer men do not have more masculine digit ratios (2D:4D).
These findings challenge the current view that lower 2D:4D in men is a uniform characteristic of the authors' species and may be related to known patterns of hormonal variation resulting from both genetic and environmental mechanisms.


Inbreeding effects on fetal growth in Beirut, Lebanon.
  • M. Khlat
  • Medicine
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 1989
Effects of consanguineous marriages on offspring's gestational age and anthropometrics at birth were investigated in Beirut through a hospital-based survey of 1,252 newborns, finding no significant pattern by type of parental consanguinity.
Brief communication: Familial resemblance in digit ratio (2D:4D).
Familial resemblance in the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a proxy for prenatal androgen action, was studied in 1,260 individuals from 235 Austrian families and heritability estimates based on parent-child and full-sib dyad similarity indicated substantial genetic contributions to trait expression.
Inbreeding depression in anthropometric traits among Telaga boys of Kharagpur, West Bengal, India.
  • B. Das
  • Biology
    Collegium antropologicum
  • 2005
The nature of in breeding effect on growing children at each yearly age with increase of inbreeding intensity in a local endogamous population based on pedigree data is examined.
Reproductive behavior and health in consanguineous marriages
In many regions of Asia and Africa, consanguineous marriages currently account for approximately 20 to 50% of all unions, and preliminary observations indicate that migrants from these areas continue
Heritability of the Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2d:4d): A Twin Study
A substantial genetic contribution is suggested to the determination of this hormonally related skeletal ratio in women, which could be more influential than the effects of common prenatal environmental factors.
Estrogen receptor 1 promoter polymorphism and digit ratio in men
Polymorphism in a tandem repeat in the gene coding for the estrogen receptor α in zebra finches not only explains a significant amount of variation in digit ratio but also seems to explain the significant correlation between digit ratio and sexual behavior in these birds.
Consanguinity, human evolution, and complex diseases
A range of primarily social factors, including urbanization, improved female education, and smaller family sizes indicate that the global prevalence of consanguineous unions will decline, which will initially result in decreased homozygosity, accompanied by a reduction in the expression of recessive single-gene disorders.
Genetic and Environmental Influences on 2D:4D Finger Length Ratios: A Study of Monozygotic and Dizygotic Male and Female Twins
Biometric model-fitting analyses indicated significant additive genetic and nonshared environmental influences on digit ratios in twins, and suggest greater similarity between 2D:4D ratios in MZ relative to DZ twins that can be accounted for by genetic and nontraditional environmental factors.
Inbreeding Effects on Mean of Metrical Traits Among the Children of Aligarh in North India
It is suggested that inbreeding depression increases with increase in the level of inbreeding, and the conformity of the hypothesis of in breeding depression of means for certain anthropometric character is brought out.
Effect of inbreeding depression on growth and fluctuating asymmetry in Turkish young males.
  • B. Ozener
  • Psychology
    American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council
  • 2010
Although the inbred group is more asymmetric in terms of the observed bilateral traits, the differences are below the significance level, and the composite FA index shows that the inbreeding group isMore asymmetric and the difference is significant (P < 0.05).