Inactivation of type 1, poliomyelitis virus with chlorine.

@article{Weidenkopf1958InactivationOT,
  title={Inactivation of type 1, poliomyelitis virus with chlorine.},
  author={S J Weidenkopf},
  journal={Virology},
  year={1958},
  volume={5 1},
  pages={
          56-67
        }
}
Comparative inactivation of viruses by chlorine
The kinetics of inactivation of six enteric viruses plus simian virus 40 and Kilham rat virus by free available chlorine was studied under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. It was found
Inactivation of poliomyelitis virus by chlorination at different oxidation potentials
  • E. Lund
  • Biology
    Archiv für die gesamte Virusforschung
  • 2005
TLDR
There seems to be no specific inactivating capacity of the chlorines as such but the inactivation may be described in terms of the oxidation potential obtained and maintained, which depends also on the amount and character of the reducing substances present.
Inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses by chlorine
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The inactivation of simian rotav virus SA-11 and human rotavirus type 2 (Wa) by chlorine was compared at 4 degrees C by using single-particle virus stocks to study the chlorine sensitivities of both virus types.
The rate of oxidative inactivation of poliovirus and its dependence on the concentration of the reactants
  • E. Lund
  • Biology
    Archiv für die gesamte Virusforschung
  • 2005
TLDR
It was found that the effect of a certain amount of residual chlorine varied with the amount of non-viral organic or inorganic matter, but that these variations could be explained through the dependence of the reaction velocity on the oxidation potential.
Inactivation by bromine of single poliovirus particles in water
TLDR
Quantitative electron microscopy shows that Freon-extracted poliovirus, velocity banded in a sucrose gradient, contains over 95% single particles, which increases in approximately linear fashion with increasing bromine concentration at both temperatures.
Effect of pH on the oxidative inactivation of poliovirus
  • E. Lund
  • Biology, Medicine
    Archiv für die gesamte Virusforschung
  • 2005
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It is suggested that in spontaneous inactivation at 37° C at least two reactions are involved, one of which, probably oxidation, predominating at low pH, while the other reaction at high pH has the higher rate.
Inactivation of poliovirus I (Brunhilde) single particles by chlorine in water
TLDR
The Brunhilde strain of poliovirus aggregated slowly in dilute phosphate-carbonate buffer at pH 6 but not at all at or above pH 7, making the OCl- at pH 10 over three times more effective than HOCl at pH6.
Oxidative inactivation of adenovirus
  • E. Lund
  • Biology
    Archiv für die gesamte Virusforschung
  • 2005
In experiments carried out at pH 7.0 and in the temperature range 0° C–50° C adenovirus types 3 and 7 were found to be inactivated by chloramine T and permanganate at a rate, wich depended on the
A comparison of the virucidal properties of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, bromine chloride and iodine
TLDR
Under optimal conditions all disinfectants were effective at low concentrations, but each disinfectant responded differently to acidity and alkalinity.
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References

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Inactivation of poliomyelitis virus by free chlorine.
TLDR
Later studies have demonstrated that these methods do not give a true evaluation of the concentration of free uncombined chlorine in water or any 'other solution containing ammonia, nitrogenous compounds, and other organic matter.
Comparison of Chlorine and Ozone as Virucidal Agents of Poliomyelitis Virus.∗
TLDR
Gaseous chlorine and hypochlorite in residual amounts of 0.5 ppm failed to inactivate a 1:1000 dilution of Le strain of poliomyelitis virus after an exposure of 90 minutes but inactivated the virus by 180 minutes, which compares favorably with those of Kempf and Soule in working with the MV strain of virus.
The purification of poliomyelitis virus as studied by complement fixation.
TLDR
Complement fixation (CF) assays for poliomyelitis virus and for monkey kidney antigens have been found useful in guiding and controlling the processes of concentration and fractionation required for the purification of poliomersic virus.
Effect of Chlorination of City Water on Virus of Poliomyelitis.∗
Summary Chlorine in a concentration of 0.5 ppm, which is an amount in excess of that usually employed in municipal practice, did not inactivate the virus of poliomyelitis in 11/2 hours.
An Investigation of the Laws of Disinfection
TLDR
It was obtained that, in disinfection with mercuric chloride, a toxic compound is formed between the metal and the substance of the bacterial cell, which prevents all further growth, but vitality can be restored by the administration of a large excess of soluble sulphide as an antidote.
Behavior of chlorine as a water disinfectant.
TLDR
A paper presented on May 5, 1948, at the Annual Conference, Atlantic City, N.J., by Gordon M. Fair, Dean of Faculty of Eng, Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass.
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