Inactivation of Norwalk virus in drinking water by chlorine.


Norwalk virus in water was found to be more resistant to chlorine inactivation than poliovirus type 1 (LSc2Ab), human rotavirus (Wa), simian rotavirus (SA11), or f2 bacteriophage. A 3.75 mg/liter dose of chlorine was found to be effective against other viruses but failed to inactivate Norwalk virus. The Norwalk virus inoculum remained infectious for five of eight volunteers, despite the initial presence of free residual chlorine. Infectivity in volunteers was demonstrated by seroconversion to Norwalk virus. Fourteen of 16 subjects receiving untreated inoculum seroconverted to Norwalk virus. Illness was produced in four of the eight volunteers and in 11 of 16 control subjects. A similar Norwalk virus inoculum treated with a 10 mg/liter dose of chlorine produced illness in only one and failed to induce seroconversion in any of eight volunteers. Free chlorine (5 to 6 mg/liter) was measured in the reaction vessel after a 30-minute contact period. Norwalk virus appears to be very resistant to chlorine which may explain its importance in outbreaks of waterborne disease.


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@article{Keswick1985InactivationON, title={Inactivation of Norwalk virus in drinking water by chlorine.}, author={B H Keswick and T K Satterwhite and P C Johnson and H L DuPont and S L Secor and J A Bitsura and G W Gary and J C Hoff}, journal={Applied and environmental microbiology}, year={1985}, volume={50 2}, pages={261-4} }