Inactivation dates of the human and guinea pig vitamin C genes

  title={Inactivation dates of the human and guinea pig vitamin C genes},
  author={Marc Y. Lachapelle and Guy Drouin},
The capacity to biosynthesize ascorbic acid has been lost in a number of species including primates, guinea pigs, teleost fishes, bats, and birds. This inability results from mutations in the GLO gene coding for L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase, the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the last step in the vitamin C biosynthetic pathway. We analyzed available primate and rodent GLO gene sequences to determine their evolutionary history. We used a method based on sequence comparisons of lineages with and… 
The Genetics of Vitamin C Loss in Vertebrates
Interestingly, some of the GLO pseudogenes found in bat species have been shown to be reactivated during evolution and suggest that losing the ability to make vitamin C is a neutral trait.
Conserved or Lost: Molecular Evolution of the Key Gene GULO in Vertebrate Vitamin C Biosynthesis
Gene structure and phylogenetic analyses showed that vertebrate GULO genes are 64–95% identical at the amino acid level and consist of 11 conserved exons, except for those that are lost.
Glut-1 explains the evolutionary advantage of the loss of endogenous vitamin C-synthesis
It is proposed that the transport of vitamin C increases an intracellular electron pool, which transfers electrons from intrace cellular ascorbate to extracellular substances like ascorbyl free radical or DHA, resulting in 100-fold smaller daily requirement of this essential redox sensitive micronutrient.
The invertebrate Caenorhabditis elegans biosynthesizes ascorbate
Ascorbic acid metabolism and functions: A comparison of plants and mammals
  • N. Smirnoff
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Free radical biology & medicine
  • 2018
Over-expression of l-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase (GLOase) gene leads to ascorbate accumulation with enhanced abiotic stress tolerance in tomato
It is suggested that the increased accumulation of AsA could upregulate the antioxidant system which imparts improved tolerance against various abiotic stresses in transgenic tomato plants as compared with wild-type plants.
Phylogenetic Articulation of Uric Acid Evolution in Mammals and How It Informs a Therapeutic Uricase
The results suggest that the pivotal death-knell to uricase activity occurred between 20 and 30 Ma despite small sequential modifications to its catalytic efficiency for the tens of millions of years since primates lost their ability to synthesize vitamin C, and thus the two appear uncorrelated.
Ascorbate is a multifunctional micronutrient whose synthesis is lacking in primates
  • J. Fujii
  • Biology
    Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition
  • 2021
It is proposed that an enhanced glucuronate conjugation reaction may have applied positive selection pressure on ascorbate-incompetent animals, thus allowing them to dominate the animal kingdom.
Molecular evolution of the oxytocin-oxytocin receptor system in eutherians.


Vitamin C biosynthesis in prosimians: evidence for the anthropoid affinity of Tarsius.
This report examines the taxonomic distribution of the in vitro biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in the Prosimii (Order: Primates). Liver and kidney samples of 15 prosimian taxa, including Tarsius
Inability of bats to synthesise L-ascorbic acid
Assessment of livers of 34 species of New World microchiropteran bats for L-gulonolactone oxidase greatly strengthens the hypothesis that all members of the Chiroptera lack the ability to synthesise vitamin C, which is surprising considering the diversity of bats and their many highly specialised diets.
Missing Step in Man, Monkey and Guinea Pig required for the Biosynthesis of L-Ascorbic Acid
Man and monkey also cannot convert L-gulonolactone to L-ascorbic acid, a step which is catalysed in rats by enzymes present in liver.
Retroviruses, ascorbate, and mutations, in the evolution of Homo sapiens.
Biosynthesis of ascorbic acid by extant actinopterygians
Polypterus senegalus, the longnose gar Lepisosteus osseus and the bowfin Amia calva had gulonolactone oxidase activity in the kidney and thus can synthesize ascorbic acid de novo and suggested homology of the character throughout fishes.
Primitive actimoterigian fishes can synthesize ascorbic acid
The accepted evolutionary pathway for ascorbic acid biosynthesis in lower vertebrates is questioned and it is suggested that the modern bony fishes,Teleostei, lost their ability to express the gulonolactone oxidase genes after they had separated during the Silurian from their common ancestor with the coelacanths and Dipnoi.
Alu-mediated 100-kb deletion in the primate genome: the loss of the agouti signaling protein gene in the lesser apes.
The authors' analyses revealed that unequal homologous recombination mediated by two AluSx elements erased a approximately 100-kb region including ASIP from the gibbon genome, providing new evidence for the significant roles of Alu elements in the dynamic evolution of the primate genome.