Estragole is a naturally occurring food-borne genotoxic compound found in a variety of food sources, including spices and herbs. This results in human exposure to estragole via the regular diet. The objective of this study was to quantify the dose-dependent estragole-DNA adduct formation in rat liver and the urinary excretion of 1'-hydroxyestragole glucuronide in order to validate our recently developed physiologically based biodynamic (PBBD) model. Groups of male outbred Sprague Dawley rats (n = 10, per group) were administered estragole once by oral gavage at dose levels of 0 (vehicle control), 5, 30, 75, 150, and 300mg estragole/kg bw and sacrificed after 48h. Liver, kidney and lungs were analysed for DNA adducts by LC-MS/MS. Results obtained revealed a dose-dependent increase in DNA adduct formation in the liver. In lungs and kidneys DNA adducts were detected at lower levels than in the liver confirming the occurrence of DNA adducts preferably in the target organ, the liver. The results obtained showed that the PBBD model predictions for both urinary excretion of 1'-hydroxyestragole glucuronide and the guanosine adduct formation in the liver were comparable within less than an order of magnitude to the values actually observed in vivo. The PBBD model was refined using liver zonation to investigate whether its predictive potential could be further improved. The results obtained provide the first data set available on estragole-DNA adduct formation in rats and confirm their occurrence in metabolically active tissues, i.e. liver, lung and kidney, while the significantly higher levels found in liver are in accordance with the liver as the target organ for carcinogenicity. This opens the way towards future modelling of dose-dependent estragole liver DNA adduct formation in human.