Tumor growth inhibitory and radiosensitizing effects of the alcoholic root extract of P. rosea was studied on experimental mouse tumors, S-180 solid tumor and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in vivo. Intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg of Plumbago extract (PE) for 10 days starting from 24 hr after intradermal inoculation of S-180 cells in BALB/c mice produced about 16% complete response (CR). The CR% increased with increase in drug dose, to 50% at 100 mg/kg for 10 days. As 100 mg/kg produced toxic side effects, lower doses were used with other treatment modalities, radiation (RT) and hyperthermia (HT). Treatment of 50 mm3 tumor with PE (75 mg/kg) for 10 days with local RT (10 Gy) and/or HT (43 degrees C, 30 min) subadditively increased the CR% and tumor free survival. The combination also significantly reduced the growth rates of uncured tumors. The PE significantly reduced the tumor glutathione content and this effect was markedly enhanced by the combination of the three modalities. PE alone was not very effective in preventing the growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss mice, though it increased mean survival time and ILS% of the mice. But with radiation it produced a synergistic effect in increasing the tumor inhibition and 120 day animal survival from 10% to 50%. The results demonstrate that though PE may have only a weak antitumor effect, it may be a good candidate for use with radiation to enhance the tumor killing effect.