T1 and T2 were determined simultaneously in vivo at 4.7 T in implanted rat brain tumors. Three different tumor cell lines were implanted in the right caudate nucleus: the F98 glioma, the E367 neuroblastoma, and the RN6 schwannoma. Their T1 and T2 values (mean +/- standard deviation [msec]), respectively, were 1,312 +/- 107 and 89 +/- 3 (glioma), 1,284 +/- 86 and 87 +/- 7 (neuroblastoma), and 1,338 +/- 85 and 86 +/- 9 (schwannoma). The T1 values (msec) of normal brain and muscle were 1,090 +/- 59 and 1,139 +/- 77, respectively, and the T2 values (msec) were 76 +/- 3 and 36 +/- 2, respectively. After injection of the contrast agent manganese (III) tetraphenylporphine sulfonate (TPPS) the T1 of all three tumors decreased by 30% and the T2 by 10%, whereas no such change in relaxivity was noted in normal brain. As a result, strong contrast enhancement of the three tumor types was seen on T1-weighted images. The tumor was clearly delineated and correlated with findings at histologic examination. This tumor enhancement was followed up for 4 days with quantitative relaxation time measurements, and the strong, selective reduction in T1 for all three tumor types after Mn-TPPS injection was preserved over the entire observation period.