In vivo porcine lipopolysaccharide inflammation models to study immunomodulation of drugs.

@article{Wyns2015InVP,
  title={In vivo porcine lipopolysaccharide inflammation models to study immunomodulation of drugs.},
  author={Heidi Wyns and Elke Plessers and Patrick de Backer and Evelyne Meyer and Siska Croubels},
  journal={Veterinary immunology and immunopathology},
  year={2015},
  volume={166 3-4},
  pages={58-69}
}
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a structural part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is one of the most effective stimulators of the immune system and has been widely applied in pigs as an experimental model for bacterial infection. For this purpose, a variety of Escherichia coli serotypes, LPS doses, routes and duration of administration have been used. LPS administration induces the acute phase response (APR) and is associated with dramatic hemodynamic, clinical and behavioral changes… CONTINUE READING

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Steroidal and nonsteroidal anti - inflammatory drugs ( ( N)SAIDs ) possess anti - inflammatory , antipyretic and analgesic properties through ( non)-selective central and peripheral cyclooxygenase ( COX ) inhibition .
Steroidal and nonsteroidal anti - inflammatory drugs ( ( N)SAIDs ) possess anti - inflammatory , antipyretic and analgesic properties through ( non)-selective central and peripheral cyclooxygenase ( COX ) inhibition .
Steroidal and nonsteroidal anti - inflammatory drugs ( ( N)SAIDs ) possess anti - inflammatory , antipyretic and analgesic properties through ( non)-selective central and peripheral cyclooxygenase ( COX ) inhibition .
Steroidal and nonsteroidal anti - inflammatory drugs ( ( N)SAIDs ) possess anti - inflammatory , antipyretic and analgesic properties through ( non)-selective central and peripheral cyclooxygenase ( COX ) inhibition .
Steroidal and nonsteroidal anti - inflammatory drugs ( ( N)SAIDs ) possess anti - inflammatory , antipyretic and analgesic properties through ( non)-selective central and peripheral cyclooxygenase ( COX ) inhibition .
Steroidal and nonsteroidal anti - inflammatory drugs ( ( N)SAIDs ) possess anti - inflammatory , antipyretic and analgesic properties through ( non)-selective central and peripheral cyclooxygenase ( COX ) inhibition .
Steroidal and nonsteroidal anti - inflammatory drugs ( ( N)SAIDs ) possess anti - inflammatory , antipyretic and analgesic properties through ( non)-selective central and peripheral cyclooxygenase ( COX ) inhibition .
Steroidal and nonsteroidal anti - inflammatory drugs ( ( N)SAIDs ) possess anti - inflammatory , antipyretic and analgesic properties through ( non)-selective central and peripheral cyclooxygenase ( COX ) inhibition .
Steroidal and nonsteroidal anti - inflammatory drugs ( ( N)SAIDs ) possess anti - inflammatory , antipyretic and analgesic properties through ( non)-selective central and peripheral cyclooxygenase ( COX ) inhibition .
Steroidal and nonsteroidal anti - inflammatory drugs ( ( N)SAIDs ) possess anti - inflammatory , antipyretic and analgesic properties through ( non)-selective central and peripheral cyclooxygenase ( COX ) inhibition .
Steroidal and nonsteroidal anti - inflammatory drugs ( ( N)SAIDs ) possess anti - inflammatory , antipyretic and analgesic properties through ( non)-selective central and peripheral cyclooxygenase ( COX ) inhibition .
Steroidal and nonsteroidal anti - inflammatory drugs ( ( N)SAIDs ) possess anti - inflammatory , antipyretic and analgesic properties through ( non)-selective central and peripheral cyclooxygenase ( COX ) inhibition .
Steroidal and nonsteroidal anti - inflammatory drugs ( ( N)SAIDs ) possess anti - inflammatory , antipyretic and analgesic properties through ( non)-selective central and peripheral cyclooxygenase ( COX ) inhibition .
Steroidal and nonsteroidal anti - inflammatory drugs ( ( N)SAIDs ) possess anti - inflammatory , antipyretic and analgesic properties through ( non)-selective central and peripheral cyclooxygenase ( COX ) inhibition .
Steroidal and nonsteroidal anti - inflammatory drugs ( ( N)SAIDs ) possess anti - inflammatory , antipyretic and analgesic properties through ( non)-selective central and peripheral cyclooxygenase ( COX ) inhibition .
Steroidal and nonsteroidal anti - inflammatory drugs ( ( N)SAIDs ) possess anti - inflammatory , antipyretic and analgesic properties through ( non)-selective central and peripheral cyclooxygenase ( COX ) inhibition .
Pro - inflammatory cytokines , including tumor necrosis factor α ( TNF-α ) , interleukin ( IL)-1 and IL-6 are involved in the induction of the eicosanoid pathway and the hepatic production of acute phase proteins , including C - reactive protein ( CRP ) , haptoglobin ( Hp ) and pig major acute phase protein ( pig - MAP ) .
Prostaglandin E2 ( PGE2 ) and thromboxane A2 ( TXA2 ) play a major role in the development of fever and pulmonary hypertension in LPS - challenged pigs , respectively .
Prostaglandin E2 ( PGE2 ) and thromboxane A2 ( TXA2 ) play a major role in the development of fever and pulmonary hypertension in LPS - challenged pigs , respectively .
Prostaglandin E2 ( PGE2 ) and thromboxane A2 ( TXA2 ) play a major role in the development of fever and pulmonary hypertension in LPS - challenged pigs , respectively .
Prostaglandin E2 ( PGE2 ) and thromboxane A2 ( TXA2 ) play a major role in the development of fever and pulmonary hypertension in LPS - challenged pigs , respectively .
Prostaglandin E2 ( PGE2 ) and thromboxane A2 ( TXA2 ) play a major role in the development of fever and pulmonary hypertension in LPS - challenged pigs , respectively .
Prostaglandin E2 ( PGE2 ) and thromboxane A2 ( TXA2 ) play a major role in the development of fever and pulmonary hypertension in LPS - challenged pigs , respectively .
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