The biological investigation and detection of esophageal cancers could be facilitated with an endoscopic technology to screen for the molecular changes that precede and accompany the onset of cancer. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles (NPs) have the potential to improve cancer detection and investigation through the sensitive and multiplexed detection of cell-surface biomarkers. Here, we demonstrate that the topical application and endoscopic imaging of a multiplexed cocktail of receptor-targeted SERS NPs enables the rapid detection of tumors in an orthotopic rat model of esophageal cancer. Antibody-conjugated SERS NPs were topically applied on the lumenal surface of the rat esophagus to target EGFR and HER2, and a miniature spectral endoscope featuring rotational scanning and axial pull-back was employed to comprehensively image the NPs bound on the lumen of the esophagus. Ratiometric analyses of specific vs. nonspecific binding enabled the visualization of tumor locations and the quantification of biomarker expression in agreement with immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry validation data.