OBJECTIVES Acetaminophen is a commonly used antipyretic agent which, at high doses, causes renal tubular damage and uremia. Bacteriotherapy affords a promising approach to mitigating uremic intoxication by ingestion of live microbes able to catabolize uremic solutes in the gut. The present study evaluates the nonpathogenic soil-borne urease-positive bacterium Sporosarcina pasteurii (Sp) as a potential urea-targeted component for such an "enteric dialysis" formulation. METHODS Twenty-four albino male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (group NC) received distilled water intraperitoneally for 7 days. The positive control group (group U) received 500 mg/kg acetaminophen intraperitoneally for 7 days. The tested group (group UP) was administered Sp at a dosage of 10(9) cells/day for 5 weeks, after receiving 500 mg/kg per day of acetaminophen intraperitoneally for 7 days. Vehicle control (group VC) received only Sp at a dosage of 10(9) cells/day for 5 weeks without acetaminophen treatment. Blood, kidney, liver and stool samples were collected after scarification, for biochemical (urea, creatinine, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase [GOT] and glutamate pyruvate transaminase [GPT] of blood, kidney and liver) tests. Limited fecal analysis was performed. RESULTS Blood urea nitrogen (urea, creatinine) and toxicity indicators (GOT, GPT) were increased, and antioxidant enzymes were decreased in group U. Blood urea nitrogen and toxicity indicators were reduced, and antioxidant enzymes were increased significantly in the group UP (p<0.05) compared with group U. The number of Sp was increased in Sp-treated groups compared with groups NC and U. CONCLUSIONS The study demonstrated that the bacteria tested reduced blood urea nitrogen levels significantly.