In vivo NMR studies of the glutamate neurotransmitter flux and neuroenergetics: implications for brain function.

@article{Rothman2003InVN,
  title={In vivo NMR studies of the glutamate neurotransmitter flux and neuroenergetics: implications for brain function.},
  author={Douglas L. Rothman and Kevin L. Behar and Fahmeed Hyder and Robert G. Shulman},
  journal={Annual review of physiology},
  year={2003},
  volume={65},
  pages={
          401-27
        }
}
Until very recently, non-invasive measurement of the glutamate-glutamine cycle in the intact mammalian brain had not been possible. In this review, we describe some studies that have led to quantitative assessment of the glutamate-glutamine cycle (Vcyc), as well as other important metabolic fluxes (e.g., glucose oxidation, CMRglc(ox)), with (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in vivo. These (13)C MRS studies clearly demonstrate that glutamate released from presynaptic neurons is taken… CONTINUE READING

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