In vivo Effects of Abused ‘Bath Salt’ Constituent 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in Mice: Drug Discrimination, Thermoregulation, and Locomotor Activity

  title={In vivo Effects of Abused ‘Bath Salt’ Constituent 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) in Mice: Drug Discrimination, Thermoregulation, and Locomotor Activity},
  author={W. Fantegrossi and Brenda M Gannon and Sarah M. Zimmerman and Kenner C. Rice},
In recent years, synthetic analogues of naturally occurring cathinone have emerged as psychostimulant-like drugs of abuse in commercial ‘bath salt’ preparations. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a common constituent of these illicit products, and its structural similarities to the more well-known drugs of abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and methamphetamine (METH) suggest that it may have similar in vivo effects to these substances. In these studies, adult male NIH Swiss… 

Stereoselective Effects of Abused “Bath Salt” Constituent 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone in Mice: Drug Discrimination, Locomotor Activity, and Thermoregulation

It is suggested that the S(+)-MDPV enantiomer is likely responsible for the majority of the biologic effects of the racemate and should be targeted in therapeutic efforts against MDPV overdose and abuse.

Abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects of methcathinone and the synthetic “bath salts” cathinone analogs methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), methylone and mephedrone on intracranial self-stimulation in rats

All compounds facilitated ICSS at some doses and pretreatment times, which is consistent with abuse liability for each of these compounds, but efficacies of compounds to facilitate ICSS varied, with methcathinone displaying the highest efficacy and mephedrone displaying the lowest efficacy.

Differential effects of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone) in rats trained to discriminate MDMA or a d-amphetamine + MDMA mixture

These findings indicate that MDPV’s effects may be more similar to those of traditional psychostimulants, whereas MEPH exerts stimulus effects more similar than those of MDMA.

Reinforcing and neurochemical effects of the “bath salts” constituents 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone (methylone) in male rats

The hypothesis that elevations in extracellular 5-HT in the brain can dampen positive reinforcing effects of cathinone-type drugs is supported.

Abuse potential of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its derivatives in zebrafish: role of serotonin 5HT2-type receptors

It is demonstrated for the first time that the rewarding properties of DOB and PMA are accompanied by hallucinatory behavior through a serotonergic system and reinforce zebrafish as an emerging experimental model for screening new hallucinogens.

Acute and chronic neurobehavioral effects of the designer drug and bath salt constituent 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone in the rat

The findings clearly show that MDPV produces profound behavioral alterations mediated by the activation of the dopaminergic system similarly to other amphetamines.

Reinforcing effects of abused ‘bath salts’ constituents 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone and &agr;-pyrrolidinopentiophenone and their enantiomers

The results of these studies provide clear evidence that both enantiomers of MDPV and &agr;-PVP function as highly effective reinforcers and likely contribute toward the abuse-related effects of ‘bath salts’ preparations containing racemic MDPVs and/or &agR;-pyrrolidinopentiophenone.



Powerful Cocaine-Like Actions of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), a Principal Constituent of Psychoactive ‘Bath Salts’ Products

The data show that MDPV is a monoamine transporter blocker with increased potency and selectivity for catecholamines when compared with cocaine, and may provide a mechanism to explain the adverse effects observed in humans taking high doses of ‘bath salts’ preparations.

Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Psychostimulants and Hallucinogens in S(+)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and R(−)-MDMA Trained Mice

Qualitative differences in the discriminative stimulus effects of each stereoisomer of MDMA exist in mice and further the understanding of the complex nature of the interoceptive effects of MDMA.

Discriminative Stimulus Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine and Its Enantiomers in Mice: Pharmacokinetic Considerations

These studies suggest that the discriminative stimulus effects of racemic MDMA are perhaps driven by accumulation of S(+)-MDMA and S-MDA in the mouse, which suggests autoinhibition (or saturation) of MDMA metabolism in mice.

Comparison of the behavioral and cardiovascular effects of mephedrone with other drugs of abuse in rats

Mephedrone produces behavioral and cardiovascular responses that are similar to other stimulants; however, differences from the classical stimulants were also apparent.

Nonlinear Pharmacokinetics of (±)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”) and Its Major Metabolites in Squirrel Monkeys at Plasma Concentrations of MDMA That Develop After Typical Psychoactive Doses

It is indicated that nonlinear MDMA accumulation occurs at plasma MDMA concentrations that develop in humans taking typical doses, which may influence the likelihood and severity of MDMA toxicities (including brain serotonin neurotoxicity).

Potent rewarding and reinforcing effects of the synthetic cathinone 3,4‐methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV)

Findings indicate that MDPV has reinforcing properties and activates brain reward circuitry, suggesting a potential for abuse and addiction in humans.

Effect of Ambient Temperature on the Thermoregulatory and Locomotor Stimulant Effects of 4-Methylmethcathinone in Wistar and Sprague-Dawley Rats

Results show that the cathinone analog 4-MMC exhibits thermoregulatory and locomotor properties that are distinct from those established for methamphetamine or MDMA in prior work, despite recent evidence of neuropharmacological similarity with MDMA.

Cathinone: An Investigation of Several N-Alkyl and Methylenedioxy-Substituted Analogs