In vitro study of soil arsenic release by human gut microbiota and its intestinal absorption by Caco-2 cells.
This study characterizes intestinal absorption of arsenic species using in vitro system Caco-2/HT29-MTX cocultures in various proportions (100/0 to 30/70). The species assayed were As(V), As(III), monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)], monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)], dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)], and dimethylarsinous acid [DMA(III)]. The results show that the apparent permeability (P(app)) values of pentavalent species increase significantly in the Caco-2/HT29-MTX cocultures in comparison with the Caco-2 monoculture, probably because of enhancement of paracellular transport. For MMA(III) and DMA(III), P(app) decreases in the Caco-2/HT29-MTX cell model, and for As(III), there is no change in P(app) between the two culture models. Transport studies of arsenic solubilized from cooked foods (rice, garlic, and seaweed) after applying an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion showed that arsenic absorption also varies with the model used, increasing with the incorporation of HT29-MTX in the culture. These results show the importance of choosing a suitable in vitro model when evaluating intestinal arsenic absorption processes.