AFrankia strain (ORS 021001) isolated fromCasuarina junghuhniana root nodules was shown to produce four type of structuresin vitro: vegetative hyphae, sporangiospores within sporangia, N2-fixing vesicles, and a fourth type of structure which is described in detail in this report. Structures of this latter type which we propose to call ‘reproductive torulose hyphae: (RTH) result from enlargement and multiple segmentation of vegetative hyphae into torulose chaions of spore-like cells. RTH differ from sporangia in three major aspects: morphology, morphogenesis and outgrowth. RTH play an important role in survival and reproduction ofFrankia strain ORS 021001. Adding activated charcoal to the nutrient medium promotes the formation ofFrankia colonies orginating from RTH.