The antibacterial activity of BMY-28142, a new aminothiazole cephalosporin, was measured by standardized broth microdilution and agar dilution methods against 450 gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria isolated from pediatric infections, including acute pulmonary exacerbations of cystic fibrosis. BMY-28142 activity was compared with that of aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin, and clindamycin. The activity of BMY-28142 in combination with other antimicrobial agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also determined. Furthermore, the effects of inoculum and pH on BMY-28142 activity were evaluated. BMY-21842 was active against most of the gram-positive and gram-negative isolates, with the exception of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas cepacia. The combination of BMY-28142 with tobramycin was often synergistic, and combinations of BMY-28142 with either polymyxin B or imipenem were usually antagonistic. BMY-28142 antibacterial activity could be adversely affected at extremes of medium pH and by high inoculum densities.