In utero exposure to Black Bull chewing tobacco and neonatal nicotine withdrawal: a review of the literature.


Among the indigenous people of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta area of Alaska, a homemade moist chewing tobacco known as Black Bull or "iq'mik" is widely used. Intake of various tobacco products is reported to be more than 80 percent in pregnant women throughout this area, with up to 60 percent of the pregnant women admitting to regular use of Black Bull. High… (More)
DOI: 10.1891/0730-0832.33.1.5


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