In the platypus a meiotic chain of ten sex chromosomes shares genes with the bird Z and mammal X chromosomes

@article{Grtzner2004InTP,
  title={In the platypus a meiotic chain of ten sex chromosomes shares genes with the bird Z and mammal X chromosomes},
  author={Frank Gr{\"u}tzner and Willem Rens and Enkhjargal Tsend-Ayush and Nisrine El-Mogharbel and P. C. M. O’Brien and Russell C. Jones and Malcolm Andrew Ferguson-Smith and Jennifer A. Marshall Graves},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2004},
  volume={432},
  pages={913-917}
}
Two centuries after the duck-billed platypus was discovered, monotreme chromosome systems remain deeply puzzling. Karyotypes of males, or of both sexes, were claimed to contain several unpaired chromosomes (including the X chromosome) that form a multi-chromosomal chain at meiosis. Such meiotic chains exist in plants and insects but are rare in vertebrates. How the platypus chromosome system works to determine sex and produce balanced gametes has been controversial for decades. Here we… 

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It is concluded that the evolutionary conservation of the chain in monotremes, the structural properties of the translocated chromosomes and the highly accurate segregation at meiosis make the platypus system remarkably different from meiotic multiples in other species.

Bird-like sex chromosomes of platypus imply recent origin of mammal sex chromosomes.

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  • 2005
Gutzner et al. find no recognizable SRY sequence and question whether the mammalian X was even the original sex chromosome in the platypus, suggesting that the original platypUS sex chromosomes were derived from the ZW chromosome system of birds and reptiles.

More sex chromosomes than autosomes in the Amazonian frog Leptodactylus pentadactylus

Heteromorphic sex chromosomes are common in eukaryotes and largely ubiquitous in birds and mammals. The largest number of multiple sex chromosomes in vertebrates known today is found in the monotreme

Analysis of SINE and LINE repeat content of Y chromosomes in the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

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Convergent Evolution of Chicken Z and Human X Chromosomes by Expansion and Gene Acquisition

It is concluded that the avian Z and mammalian X chromosomes followed convergent evolutionary trajectories, despite their evolving with opposite (female versus male) systems of heterogamety.
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