In the Shadow of Democracy Promotion

@article{Beaulieu2009InTS,
  title={In the Shadow of Democracy Promotion},
  author={Emily Beaulieu and Susan D. Hyde},
  journal={Comparative Political Studies},
  year={2009},
  volume={42},
  pages={392 - 415}
}
International efforts to promote democracy can have unanticipated effects. International election observation is perceived to increase domestic confidence in the electoral process and reduce fraud. Conversely, election boycotts are perceived to be more likely as electoral fairness decreases. The authors document a puzzling relationship between monitored elections and opposition party boycotts: Observers are associated with an increased boycott probability. They argue that international benefits… 

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