In the Hunt for the "Sultans of Smack:" Dope, Gangsters and the Construction of the Turkish Deep State

  title={In the Hunt for the "Sultans of Smack:" Dope, Gangsters and the Construction of the Turkish Deep State},
  author={Ryan Gingeras},
  journal={The Middle East Journal},
  pages={426 - 441}
  • Ryan Gingeras
  • Published 10 August 2011
  • Sociology
  • The Middle East Journal
This article traces the development and evolution of the Turkish heroin trade against the backdrop of the Republic of Turkey's long transition from imperial core to nation-state. In taking up heroin's relationship to modern Turkey, I would like to specifically explore the meaning and manifestations of what many inside and outside of academia have called the "deep state." Heroin, I argue, was and is one of the most vital enablers of the factional "deep state" rivalries that compete for power in… 

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