Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were deposited onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by in situ high-temperature decomposition of the magnetic precursor [iron(III)] and MWCNTs, in ethylene glycol. This one-step synthetic method was applied to commercially available carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Scanning electron micrographs of the resulting products revealed that MNPs decorated the surface of the MWCNTs. The hybrid nanoparticles thus obtained were used for sampling and cleanup in the determination of eight fluoroquinolones (FQs) and two quinolones (Qs) at trace levels by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). A systematic study of analyte adsorption and desorption was conducted with MNPs and MWCNTs separately. Although both solid phases adsorbed the analytes to some extent, the much higher recoveries were obtained by using the MNP-MWCNT composite which was thus selected to treat plasma samples containing FQs and Qs. Lower accuracies were determined at spiked plasma compared to the standard solution caused by the complexation affinity of the analytes with proteins because high recoveries were observed when deproteinization was performed before treating the sample with the magnetic MWCNTs. The performance characteristics of the optimized method were determined, and the method was applied to the analysis of plasma samples from antibiotic-treated patients. On the basis of the results, the use of an in situ synthesized MWCNT-MNP composite allows the simple, expeditious sampling and treatment of such complex biological samples for the subsequent determination of FQs and Qs present at free form.