In situ measurements of the physical characteristics of Titan's environment

  title={In situ measurements of the physical characteristics of Titan's environment},
  author={Marcello Fulchignoni and Francesca Ferri and Francesco Angrilli and A. J. Ball and Akiva Bar-Nun and Maria Antonietta Barucci and Carlo Bettanini and Gianluca Bianchini and William J. Borucki and Giacomo Colombatti and Marcello Coradini and Athena Coustenis and Stefano Debei and Peter Falkner and Giulio Fanti and Enrico Flamini and V. Gaborit and R. J. L. Grard and Michel Hamelin and A. M. Harri and Brijen Hathi and I. Jernej and Mark R. Leese and A. Lehto and P. F. Lion Stoppato and Jos{\'e} Juan L{\'o}pez-Moreno and Tuula M{\"a}kinen and James M. McDonnell and Christopher P McKay and G. J. Molina-Cuberos and F. Neubauer and Valerio Pirronello and R Rodrigo and Bortolino Saggin and Konrad Schwingenschuh and Alvin Seiff and Fabiano Andre Simoes and H̊akan Svedhem and Tetsuya Tokano and Martin C. Towner and Roland Trautner and Paul Withers and John C. Zarnecki},
On the basis of previous ground-based and fly-by information, we knew that Titan's atmosphere was mainly nitrogen, with some methane, but its temperature and pressure profiles were poorly constrained because of uncertainties in the detailed composition. The extent of atmospheric electricity (‘lightning’) was also hitherto unknown. Here we report the temperature and density profiles, as determined by the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI), from an altitude of 1,400 km down to the… CONTINUE READING
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