In-situ measurements of the mixing state and optical properties of soot with implications for radiative forcing estimates.

Abstract

Our ability to predict how global temperatures will change in the future is currently limited by the large uncertainties associated with aerosols. Soot aerosols represent a major research focus as they influence climate by absorbing incoming solar radiation resulting in a highly uncertain warming effect. The uncertainty stems from the fact that the actual amount soot warms our atmosphere strongly depends on the manner and degree in which it is mixed with other species, a property referred to as mixing state. In global models and inferences from atmospheric heating measurements, soot radiative forcing estimates currently differ by a factor of 6, ranging between 0.2-1.2 W/m(2), making soot second only to CO(2) in terms of global warming potential. This article reports coupled in situ measurements of the size-resolved mixing state, optical properties, and aging timescales for soot particles. Fresh fractal soot particles dominate the measured absorption during peak traffic periods (6-9 AM local time). Immediately after sunrise, soot particles begin to age by developing a coating of secondary species including sulfate, ammonium, organics, nitrate, and water. Based on these direct measurements, the core-shell arrangement results in a maximum absorption enhancement of 1.6x over fresh soot. These atmospheric observations help explain the larger values for soot forcing measured by others and will be used to obtain closure in optical property measurements to reduce one of the largest remaining uncertainties in climate change.

DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0900040106

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@article{Moffet2009InsituMO, title={In-situ measurements of the mixing state and optical properties of soot with implications for radiative forcing estimates.}, author={Ryan C. Moffet and Kimberly A . Prather}, journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, year={2009}, volume={106 29}, pages={11872-7} }