In situ imaging reveals the biomass of giant protists in the global ocean

  title={In situ imaging reveals the biomass of giant protists in the global ocean},
  author={Tristan Biard and Lars Stemmann and Marc Picheral and Nicolas Mayot and Pieter Vandromme and Helena Hauss and Gabriel Gorsky and Lionel Guidi and Rainer Kiko and Fabrice Not},
Planktonic organisms play crucial roles in oceanic food webs and global biogeochemical cycles. Most of our knowledge about the ecological impact of large zooplankton stems from research on abundant and robust crustaceans, and in particular copepods. A number of the other organisms that comprise planktonic communities are fragile, and therefore hard to sample and quantify, meaning that their abundances and effects on oceanic ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, using data from a worldwide in… 

Ocean science: The rise of Rhizaria

Using data collected by an in situ imaging system during the Tara Oceans global survey, Tristan Biard et al. quantified the respective contributions of Rhizaria (a broad phylogenetic group of marine protists) and other zooplankton larger than 600 μm, finding that they represent a much larger biomass than previously appreciated.

Specific eukaryotic plankton are good predictors of net community production in the Western Antarctic Peninsula

The results indicate that defining plankton communities at a deeper taxonomic resolution than by functional groups and accounting for the differences in size and coupling between groups can substantially improve organic carbon flux predictions.

In situ imaging across ecosystems to resolve the fine-scale oceanographic drivers of a globally significant planktonic grazer

Doliolids are common gelatinous grazers in marine ecosystems around the world and likely influence carbon cycling due to their large population sizes with high growth and excretion rates.

Community‐Level Responses to Iron Availability in Open Ocean Plankton Ecosystems

This work provides a proof of concept that integrative analyses, spanning from genes to ecosystems and viruses to zooplankton, can disentangle the complexity of plankton communities and can lead to more accurate formulations of resource bioavailability in biogeochemical models, thus improving the understanding of plankon resilience in a changing environment.

Diversity and ecology of Radiolaria in modern oceans

Summary Among the many inhabitants of planktonic communities, several lineages have biomineralized intricate skeletons. These have existed for millions of years and include the Radiolaria, a group of

Large Phaeodaria in the twilight zone: Their role in the carbon cycle

Advances in in situ imaging allow enumeration of abundant populations of large Rhizarians that compose a substantial proportion of total mesozooplankton biovolume. Using a quasi‐Lagrangian sampling

Estimating Biogenic Silica Production of Rhizaria in the Global Ocean

Siliceous polycystines and phaeodarians are open‐ocean planktonic protists found throughout the water column and characterized by complex siliceous skeletons that are formed, at least partly, through

Oceanic protists with different forms of acquired phototrophy display contrasting biogeographies and abundance

This first comprehensive analysis of the global biogeography of marine protistan plankton with acquired phototrophy shows these mixotrophic organisms to be ubiquitous and abundant; however, their

The Significance of Giant Phaeodarians (Rhizaria) to Biogenic Silica Export in the California Current Ecosystem

In marine ecosystems, many planktonic organisms precipitate biogenic silica (bSiO2) to build silicified skeletons. Among them, giant siliceous rhizarians (>500 μm), including Radiolaria and

Plankton networks driving carbon export in the oligotrophic ocean

It is shown that specific plankton communities, from the surface and deep chlorophyll maximum, correlate with carbon export at 150 m and that the relative abundance of a few bacterial and viral genes can predict a significant fraction of the variability in carbon export in these regions.



Eukaryotic plankton diversity in the sunlit ocean

Diversity emerged at all taxonomic levels, both within the groups comprising the ~11,200 cataloged morphospecies of eukaryotic plankton and among twice as many other deep-branching lineages of unappreciated importance in plankton ecology studies.

Distribution of mesozooplankton biomass in the global ocean

Abstract. Mesozooplankton are cosmopolitan within the sunlit layers of the global ocean. They are important in the pelagic food web, having a significant feedback to primary production through their

Acquired phototrophy in aquatic protists

Evidence suggests that 'excess car- bon' provided by acquired phototrophy has been important in supporting major evolutionary innova- tions that are crucial to the current ecological roles of these protists in aquatic ecosystems.

Video plankton recorder reveals high abundances of colonial Radiolaria in surface waters of the central North Pacific

Observations of abundances of radiolarian cells in colonies that exceeded previous reports of total Radiolaria by more than ten-fold are observed, indicating an important contribution of skeletonless spumellaria to food webs and biogeochemical cycles of these communities.

Reconciliation of the carbon budget in the ocean’s twilight zone

It is found that prokaryotes are responsible for 70 to 92 per cent of the estimated remineralization in the twilight zone despite the fact that much of the organic carbon is exported in the form of large, fast-sinking particles accessible to larger zooplankton.

Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity

Global ocean NPP changes detected from space over the past decade are described, dominated by an initial increase in NPP of 1,930 teragrams of carbon a year, followed by a prolonged decrease averaging 190 Tg C yr-1.

Radiolaria: Major exporters of organic carbon to the deep ocean

Very large pulses of particulate organic matter intermittently sink to the deep waters of the open ocean in the Northeast Atlantic. These pulses, measured by moored sediment traps since 1989, can

Ecosystem dynamics based on plankton functional types for global ocean biogeochemistry models

Ecosystem processes are important determinants of the biogeochemistry of the ocean, and they can be profoundly affected by changes in climate. Ocean models currently express ecosystem processes

MAREDAT: towards a world atlas of MARine Ecosystem DATa

Abstract. We present a summary of biomass data for 11 plankton functional types (PFTs) plus phytoplankton pigment data, compiled as part of the MARine Ecosystem biomass DATa (MAREDAT) initiative. The

Marine biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, and carbon cycles

The study suggests that, contrary to the usual interpretation of increasing biodiversity being a positive emergent property promoting the stability/resilience of ecosystems, the parallel decrease in sizes of planktonic organisms could be viewed in the North Atlantic as reducing some of the services provided by marine ecosystems to humans.