In memory of Nikolai Semenovich Kardashev

  title={In memory of Nikolai Semenovich Kardashev},
  author={Yu. Yu. Balega and Leonid I. Gurvits and Rustam D. Dagkesamanskii and Lev M. Zelenyi and Karina Kellermann and Yuri Y. Kovalev and Nikolai Kolachevsky and A. A. Konovalenko and V. G. Kurt and Igor Novikov and Yu. N. Pariĭskiĭ and Anatolii Mikhailovich Cherepashchuk},
  journal={Physics – Uspekhi},
  pages={622 - 624}
Kardashev passed away on August 3, 2019 in Moscow. In the first decade after the Second World War, radio astronomy soared headlong onto the front line of studying the Universe. This was a complicated process in a far from simple periodÐeven the most successful astronomers, physicists, and engineers could not always keep pace with the rapidly transforming science. But it was much more difficult to take part directly in this development, to say nothing of being a driving force in the creation of…