In Vitro Photodynamic Activity of a Series of Methylene Blue Analogues¶

@inproceedings{Mellish2002InVP,
  title={In Vitro Photodynamic Activity of a Series of Methylene Blue Analogues¶},
  author={Kirste J. Mellish and Russell D. Cox and David I. Vernon and John Griffiths and Stanley B. Brown},
  year={2002}
}
Abstract We have synthesized a series of symmetrical phenothiazines in which the methyl groups of methylene blue have been substituted by longer alkyl chains. Intrinsic photosensitizing ability was not altered by increasing the chain length. However, in vitro phototoxicity after 2 h incubation of RIF-1 murine fibrosarcoma cells followed the order n-propyl > n-pentyl > n-butyl > n-hexyl > ethyl > methyl, with ethyl and n-propyl analogues being 14- and 130-fold more phototoxic than methylene blue… 

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with Basic Side Chains

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Hydrogen Bond Acceptors and Additional Cationic Charges in Methylene Blue Derivatives: Photophysics and Antimicrobial Efficiency

In suspensions with both, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, some derivatives were highly active upon illumination to inactivate S. aureus and E. coli up to 7 log10 steps (99.99999%) without inherent toxicities in the nonirradiated state.

Photodynamic Characterization and In Vitro Application of Methylene Blue-containing Nanoparticle Platforms¶

The concept of the drug-delivering nanoparticles has been extended to a new type of dynamic nanoplatform (DNP) that only delivers 1O2 that could also be used as a targeted multifunctional platform for combined diagnostics and therapy of cancer.
...

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